Bow legs and knock knees: is it physiological or pathological?

Ramagopal Ganavi


Knock knees and bow legs are commonly seen pediatric orthopedic problem, as the child grows the knee undergoes sequential changes in the axial development from varus to valgus. Differences in appearance of foot and position of foot while the child is walking as noticed by parents most often reflect variations of normal physiological development. As parents are not aware of normal growth and development of lower-extremity, and desire for normal alignment in their children, they are very much concern and motivated to seek medical advice. Many children are referred unnecessary to orthopedician for treatment of physiological genu varum and genu valgus which is unnecessary and may turn out to be sometimes harmful also. Most parents are happy to be reassured that this children deformity is with normal limits and will disappear. For this the physician should be aware of when to consider as physiological and pathological for which he has to take a detailed history of the problem, perform a detailed examination to rule out pathological causes. So, this article helps us to know when to consider physiological and rule out pathological so as to avoid unnecessary interventions for the child.


Genu, Varum, Valgum

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