https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/issue/feed International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics 2024-05-27T19:35:58+0530 Editor medipeditor@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics (IJCP) is an open access, international, peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research work in all areas of pediatric research. The journal's full text is available online at http://www.ijpediatrics.com. The journal allows free access to its contents. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics is dedicated to publishing research in all aspects of health of infants, children, and adolescents. The journal has a broad coverage of relevant topics in pediatrics: General Pediatrics, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Adolescent Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Vaccines, Allergy and Immunology, Gastroenterology, Cardiology, Critical Care Medicine, Developmental-Behavioral Medicine, Endocrinology, Hematology-Oncology, Nephrology, Neurology, Emergency Medicine, Pulmonology, Rheumatology and Genetics. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics (IJCP) is one of the fastest communication journals and articles are published online within short time after acceptance of manuscripts. The types of articles accepted include original research articles, review articles, insightful editorials, case reports, short communications, correspondence, images in pediatrics, clinical problem solving, perspectives and pediatric medicine. It is published <strong>monthly</strong> and available in print and online version. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics (IJCP) complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="mailto:medipeditor@gmail.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">medipeditor@gmail.com</a>, <a href="mailto:editor@ijpediatrics.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">editor@ijpediatrics.com</a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2349-3283</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2349-3291</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="http://www.medipacademy.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. 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Previously exact cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was mostly unknown. Recently, advancements in diagnostic intervention, they are found to be a heterogeneous entity having an immune basis and genetic aetiology. With a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SRNS, leading to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Novel therapeutic options include extracorporeal therapy, monoclonal antibodies, stem cell therapy, ACTH and galactose. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of emerging therapies for SRNS in paediatric populations.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6038 Benign extra skeletal chondroma of the tongue in a 16-year-old female 2024-04-12T02:40:20+0530 Bianca Glass biancaglass8@gmail.com Michelle Mathew michelle.mathew@kansascity.edu Christopher Reyes Christopher.reyes@kansascity.edu John Irlam john.irlam@yahoo.com Samir Dalia samir.dalia@mercy.net <p>Chondromas are tumors that result from chondroid differentiation most frequently occurring in areas where chondrocytes are present. Rarely, they can present in soft tissues, such as the tongue. This case report will review the extra skeletal chondroma found on the posterior tongue of an asymptomatic 16-year-old female. Discussed within this case report will include the importance of histopathological analysis in distinguishing enchondroma versus chondrosarcoma and review the malignant transformation rate. Additionally, it will compare the trends of chondromas found in the oral cavity that have been previously published. This case will highlight the importance of recognizing chondromas in unusual places, such as the origin of soft tissues, and emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, surgical intervention and providing optimal outcomes for young patients.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6002 Torticollis and right arm weakness due to atraumatic spinal epidural hematoma in a 5-year-old girl child 2024-03-26T15:37:12+0530 Esam E. Barnawi dr.altaf_bhat@rediffmail.com Altaf Ahmad Bhat dr.altaf_bhat@rediffmail.com Abdullatif Almalki dr.altaf_bhat@rediffmail.com Nada Daud Bin Daud dr.altaf_bhat@rediffmail.com Mohammad Abdullah Almazeedi dr.altaf_bhat@rediffmail.com Abdulelah Ahmad Ali Al Amri dr.altaf_bhat@rediffmail.com <p>Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare presentation as cause of neurological weakness in children and is neurological emergency. The most commonly affected site in children is cardiothoracic region. Early management is associated with better functional outcomes. We report a 5-year-old girl who presented with long standing neck pain now presenting to emergency with torticollis and right arm weakness around shoulder joint. Magnetic resonance imaging of C-spine revealed posterior epidural hematoma that extend from C3/C4 level down to C6/C7 level, it is causing moderate spinal canal stenosis and mass-effect on the spinal cord, with mild intramedullary abnormal T2 signal intensity indicating myelomalacia. There were no predisposing factors in our patient. Epidural hematoma was drained surgically and post-surgery patient started showing neurological recovery on follow. Cases of spontaneous SEH have been reported in infants as well and the clinical features in children are often nonspecific leading to a delay in diagnosis. This case report aims to raise awareness about this neurological emergency, in which early intervention is crucial.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6023 Disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma secondary to chemotherapeutic treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia 2024-04-02T23:14:26+0530 Alondra Saray Polanco Llanes alondra93_saray@hotmail.com Carla Itzel Figueroa Basurto dra.carla.figueroa@gmail.com Clariza Cecilia Infante Fernández claricif@gmail.com Ana María Medina Torres annemarie.mt@hotmail.com María Elisa Vega Memije elisavega50@gmail.com <p>Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign, reactive, self-limiting disorder within the non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis group. It primarily affects infants and preschoolers, and occasionally in adults. Some cases report concurrent non-LCH and leukemia, with bone marrow being the second common pathology. We present a case of JXG with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a 17-year-old male. Emphasizing the importance of considering the possibility of apparently disparate disorders in a patient, especially with unusual clinical findings.</p> <p> </p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6066 A puzzle unravelled: pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly in juvenile autoimmune hypothyroidism 2024-04-30T17:28:54+0530 Yankappa Nayak shreeharivenki@gmail.com Mounika Reddy doc.mounikareddy@gmail.com Manogna Ghantasala manognaghantasala@gmail.com Ragini Mundhe raginimundhe@gmail.com Madhusudan Samprathi samprathim@gmail.com <p>Autoimmune thyroiditis is a common cause of hypothyroidism in adolescent females. While normocytic normochromic anemia is a recognized association with hypothyroidism, pancytopenia is seldom reported. This case report discusses a young adolescent girl with autoimmune hypothyroidism presenting with severe pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. After extensive evaluation, hypoproliferative marrow with extramedullary hematopoiesis secondary to uncontrolled hypothyroidism was considered to be the most likely cause. Swift recovery following appropriate levothyroxine replacement further supports this hypothesis. Thus, hypothyroidism can be a potential cause of pancytopenia with hepatosplenomegaly. Early recognition and appropriate management can lead to prompt resolution and prevent unnecessary invasive procedures.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6067 Case report on sickle cell anemia: a cascade of crisis 2024-04-30T21:22:52+0530 Akshay Raundhal akshay.r.raundhal@gmail.com Lakshmi Menon laxmivmenon@gmail.com Shriya Umalkar shriyaumalkar95@gmail.com <p>Children with sickle cell homozygous state often experience complications like an acute painful crisis, dactylitis, severe anemia, sequestration, acute febrile illness, and stroke because of its complicated pathophysiology. This is one of the main reasons for a child’s frequent hospital visits or admissions, which is a significant cause of its morbidity. This case discussed a 7-year-old male child who presented to the hospital in vaso-occlusive crisis in the form of pain in the right elbow joint, followed by a rare occurrence of deteriorating multiple morbid complications of sickle cell disease in the same patient within a short span of his hospital stay.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/5941 Prevertebral thoracic abscess in neonate- a previously unknown cause of respiratory failure in neonates: a case report 2024-02-16T22:32:35+0530 Pragya D. Sharma drpragyadsharma@gmail.com Ranganatha A. Devaranavadagi drranganath_a@ymail.com Netra S. Kannur netraskannur@gmail.com Karthik Nagesh drkarthiknagesh@gmail.com <p>A prevertebral abscess is one of the serious infections of the prevertebral space. Prevertebral abscess cases are reported in children and adults. However, it has not been reported in neonates to date, and our team report a case of prevertebral abscess in a 17-day-old baby. A previously healthy term neonate with no antecedent risk factors and an evident source of infection presented with respiratory failure and repeated extubation failures. On evaluation, bronchoscopy revealed antero-posterior collapse of the trachea; further evaluation by computed tomography scan revealed a prevertebral thoracic abscess which was compressing the trachea. Surgical drainage and IV antibiotics led to complete resolution, and the neonate is doing well on follow-up. Prevertebral thoracic abscess is an uncommon cause of airway compression in the neonates. It is important to consider in the differential diagnosis of airway compression.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/5994 Giant cervical teratoma masquerading as lymphatic malformation 2024-03-22T09:55:43+0530 Keerthana Bachala keerthana.bachala@gmail.com Shreyas Dhudani shreyas.dudhani45@gmail.com Sourav Jana janasourav6393@gmail.com Amit Kumar dr_amits@yahoo.com Amit Kumar Sinha dramitks@aiimspatna.org <p>Teratomas are composed of multiple tissues foreign to the organ or site from which they arise. They are tumours which consist of solid or organoid masses containing tissues derived from all three or any of the three blastodermic layers. Their histologic features are heterogeneous and may include cystic or solid areas as well as mature and immature components. They can develop from any part of body. The commonest area of occurrence is sacrococcygeal region followed by retro peritoneum. They rarely occur in cervical region.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6004 Sturge Weber syndrome: journey of 10 years 2024-03-26T22:51:19+0530 Seema Rai seemadoc98@yahoo.co.uk Nikhil Arora nikhilarora4435@gmail.com Shefali Dhawan shefalidhawan88@outlook.com Sugandh Sareen sugandh9525@gmail.com <p>Sturge-Weber syndrome is the third most prevalent neurocutaneous condition after neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. It is characterized by alterations in the brain, skin, and eyes vasculature, caused by abnormal fetal vein growth. Symptoms include port wine nevi on the upper face and eye-lid than rest of the body. Neurological manifestations include atonic, tonic or myoclonic type of seizures which are refractory to usual treatment. Authors present case of a 9-year-old female suffering from seizures since many years without any definitive diagnosis, to increase awareness among pediatricians for early diagnosis and better management for this syndrome.</p> <p> </p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6006 Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus causing late onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis: a case report 2024-03-27T15:50:07+0530 Khalid M. Saifullah saifullahkm@yahoo.com Ankit Ranjan ankitranjan96@gmail.com Rajesh Kumar drrajeshranihospital@gmail.com M. Tasawar Ansari pathohons@gmail.com <p><em>Streptococcus gallolyticus</em> is a gram-positive microbe rarely isolated from cases of neonatal sepsis. Prompt identification, management and monitoring is necessary in such cases due to potential complications like meningitis and endocarditis. We report a preterm baby referred to us on day 18 of life with fever, respiratory distress and lethargy with seizure. Blood culture revealed <em>S. gallolyticus</em> subspecies <em>pasteurianus</em> with meningitis on cerebrospinal fluid examination. He was treated with 21 days of injectable vancomycin and teicoplanin. Baby had no neurological sequelae or other end organ complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from eastern India describing sepsis secondary to this rare organism.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6016 Pulse methylprednisolone therapy triggered sinus bradycardia in two children 2024-03-31T13:27:46+0530 Bipul K. Das dr.bipul.kdas@gmail.com Shantasree Ghosh ghosh.shantasree23@gmail.com Murchana Khound murchana12@gmail.com Jaya S. Kaushik jayashankarkaushik@gmail.com <p>Intravenous methylprednisolone is an important therapeutic modality in many conditions, owing to their anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Along with other side-effects of corticosteroids, cardiovascular side-effects are also seen in varying degree in children. Sinus bradycardia is reported uncommonly in children following high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. We report two paediatric cases without any underlying cardiac problems with asymptomatic bradycardia following high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. Heart rate reduction was seen from 30-40% compared to the baseline heart rate, which returned to its normal value after 24-36 hours of stoppage of the offending drug. A high index of suspicion along with strict cardiovascular monitoring is necessary in patients receiving high dose of methylprednisolone.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6021 Bleeding hands in a young girl 2024-04-03T17:23:07+0530 K. Venkataramana Reddy reddy.venkataramana1@gmail.com D. Deepthi deepthidhanala@gmail.com Chapay Soren drsorenpedprof@gmail.com Sailaja K. sailajakamaraju@gmail.com Gouthami N. gouth.ami.icloud@gmail.com <p>Hematohidrosis is a rare disorder involving the spontaneous excretion of sweat contaminated by blood cells. We reported the case of an 8-year-old girl with unusual painless bleeding from her fingertips with no underlying disease or psychotic disorder. On examination, it disappeared as soon as it was wiped without leaving any sign of trauma and reappeared within a few seconds. Her secretions were confirmed as blood with a benzidine test and blood components were observed on microscopic examination of the fluid. Thus, a diagnosis of hematohidrosis was made and her symptoms decreased after treatment with oral propranolol.</p> <p> </p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6025 Multiple gene mutations in cytomegalovirus positive infantile nephrotic syndrome: a case report 2024-04-03T20:38:00+0530 Abhishek Abhinay abhinay.abhishek@bhu.ac.in Swetketu swetmbbs@gmail.com Devesh Kumar kdevesh39@gmail.com Rajniti Prasad rajnitip@gmail.com Ankur Singh pediaankur@gmail.com Nitish Kumar doctornitishkumar@gmail.com <p>The term “infantile” is used for those cases of nephrotic syndrome (NS) that manifest from 3 months to 1 year of age. These are rare diseases attributable to both genetic and certain congenital infections. The prognosis depends on the type of mutation and whether remission occurs with specific therapy in the latter. However, multiple other gene mutations may be found associated with these that hold individual significance. Here, we report a case of an 11-month-old child with infantile NS having novel gene mutations NPHS 2 gene and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) on Exon 4 and Exon 5 gene respectively. The presence of hepatomegaly and poor nutritional status instigated us to investigate congenital infections. Positive IgM and IgG values of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the TORCH profile and a positive urinary polymerase chain reaction confirmed CMV infection, though we were unable to establish whether it was congenital or acquired postnatally. The child was managed with injectable gancyclovir along with supportive therapy which showed partial remission after a period of 10 days and discharge on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and diuretic. The coexistence of the multiple gene mutations might have caused the severity of the phenotype. Also, identification and treatment at earlier notice might have an impact on the outcome of the disease. The authors emphasize the importance of performing a genetic test in cases of infantile NS and also working up for acquired causes on an individualized basis.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6033 A rheumatological catastrophe: case of amyopathic juvenile dermatomyositis 2024-04-15T19:27:34+0530 Meghashree Vinod meghashreevinod@gmail.com Nikitha K. nikitha.kuppinakere4@gmail.com <p>Juvenile-onset amyopathic dermatomyositis is rare variant of juvenile-onset dermatomyositis (JDM), characterized by the hallmark cutaneous features of dermatomyositis without clinical or laboratory evidence of muscle disease. Dermatomyositis with positive anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) antibody has a distinct phenotype associated with small hand joint arthritis, mucocutaneous ulceration in the absence of muscle involvement. In this article, we describe a 5-year-old child presented with mucocutaneous manifestations with no muscle weakness who responded to immunosuppressive therapy.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6040 Trouble doubled: a rare case of Schaaf Yang syndrome with severe acute malnutrition 2024-04-13T00:57:09+0530 Prajitha Sasidharan prajitha93@gmail.com Shalini Yadav shlnyadhav@gmail.com Usha Rani drusha83pd@gmail.com Varsha S. Ahirrrao drvarsha2006@yahoo.co.in <p>Schaaf-Yang syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the paternal allele of the Melanoma antigen L2 (MAGEL2) gene. Developmental delay, feeding difficulties with joint contractures and a high prevalence of development disorders including autism are characteristic of this syndrome. We describe a unique case of an infant with Schaaf-Yang syndrome who presented with failure to thrive. The case emphasizes the need for genome sequencing for early diagnosis and management of this rare genetic disease. It also highlights the need to think beyond nutrition when it comes to severe acute malnutrition.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6047 Early surprise: managing natal tooth in a 22-day-old infant 2024-04-16T12:59:16+0530 Vritika Singh ssinghvritika@gmail.com Reema Sharma ssinghvritika@gmail.com Shantanu Jain ssinghvritika@gmail.com Nikhil Marwah ssinghvritika@gmail.com Vipul Sharma ssinghvritika@gmail.com <p>The presence of teeth at birth or earlier than expected is a rare phenomenon and can evoke a variety of reactions. Natal teeth are those present at birth, while neonatal teeth appear within the first 30 days after birth, constituting an unusual and rare occurrence. This case report describes the management of a 22-day-old female infant with presence of an excessively mobile tooth in the lower jaw since birth, causing breastfeeding difficulties. The tooth appeared whitish opaque in colour, with grade II mobility. Crown size, shape, and appearance were similar to normal teeth. Due to the association of natal teeth with breastfeeding discomfort, extraction was recommended. No vitamin K prophylaxis was administered as the baby had achieved normal safe levels. Topical anesthesia was applied, and the tooth was extracted using primary anterior forceps. Hemostasis was achieved with sterile cotton gauze, and the patient was discharged post-extraction.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6005 Renal diseases in children at the university of Gondar hospital, Ethiopia: pattern and outcome 2024-03-29T18:01:12+0530 Mehretie K. Alemu mehretiek@gmail.com Addisu G. Dubie addisuyektie@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: In developing countries, renal diseases in children are becoming common causes of morbidity and mortality. In Ethiopia, there are no adequate data about patterns and outcome of these disorders. We conducted this study to provide evidences on patterns and outcome of renal diseases in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Gondar, Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective record review of all pediatric patients admitted with renal diseases over a period of two-years (January 2022-December 2023) to the university of Gondar hospital (UoGH), was conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 456, comprising 231 (50.7%) females and 225 (49.3%) males, patients were studied. Majority (37.7%) of patients were below 5 years of age. Renal diseases accounted for 3.6% of all admissions during the 2-years period. Common renal problems were urinary tract infection (UTI) (29%), acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) (24.1%), nephrotic syndrome (18.6%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (14.3%), nephroblastoma (9%) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD) (2.4%). Finally; 71.9% were discharged improved and 10.5% died. The highest case fatality rates were in patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (36.7%) followed by CKD (36.4%), and AKI (21.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study revealed high prevalence and mortality rate of renal diseases in children. The major causes of death were AGN/RPGN, CKD and AKI. All the above evidences clearly disclosed that establishment of a pediatric nephrology unit and get a trained pediatric nephrologist in our university hospital is critical.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6063 Evaluation of renal function of sickle cell children in Libreville by estimation of glomerular creatinine-cystatin C filtration rate: prevalence of acute kidney injury and associated factors 2024-04-29T03:11:31+0530 Steeve Mintoo steeve.mintoo@yahoo.fr Fifi C. Loembe fificlaireloembe1001@gmail.com Sylvie Mpira nisylmpira@gmail.com Nathalie Nguemou Steeve.mintoo@yahoo.fr Joel Djoba Siawaya Steeve.mintoo@yahoo.fr Jean Koko Steeve.mintoo@yahoo.fr Simon J. Ategbo Steeve.mintoo@yahoo.fr <p><strong>Background:</strong> Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an important and growing global health problem. Kidney damage is one of the most common complications of SCD. We aimed to determine the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with SCD in our context.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional and analytical study from January 2022 to September 2022, including SCD children aged from 6 months to 17 years during their hospitalisation. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate using the combined creatinine and cystatin C formula for kids (CKiD<sub>Scr-Cys C</sub>). Univariate analyses were performed to measure the relationship between variables and AKI and eGFR, followed by a multivariate analysis using logistic regression.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 137 children, we included 82 boys (60%) and 55 girls (40%). The mean eGFR was 112±45.3 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. A total of 36 subjects, or 26.3% (95% CI [18.9-33.6%)), had acute AKI. Comparison of characteristics by AKI status showed significant differences according the number of transfusions (p&lt;0.01), and hemoglobin level (p&lt;0.027), eGFR had a negative correlation with the number of transfusions r=-0.308 (-0.477; -0.117); p&lt;0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that nutritional status was a protective factor of AKI (p&lt;0.01), and the number of transfusions was a predictive factor of AKI in SCD in our context (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The results from our study are an urgent alarm to implement the existing management programs on SCD from screening to universal access of hydroxyurea in order to reduce complications and mortality related to this pathology.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6072 Study the malnutrition status of children aged 6-24 months of the Cham ethnic group in Tan Chau town, An Giang province in 2018 2024-05-13T13:17:54+0530 Quang Hien Tran tranquanghienag@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>In recent years, according to the investigation report of the Institute of Nutrition, the malnutrition rate of children in remote, faraway, and ethnic minority areas is still high compared to children in other regions. Studying the malnutrition status of children aged 6 to 24 months of the Cham ethnic group in Tan Chau town, An Giang province is a practical need to provide some scientific evidence for interventions to reduce the malnutrition rate of children in the locality. This study aims to explore the nutritional status of children aged 6-24 months of the Cham ethnic group in Tan Chau town, An Giang province in 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Cham ethnic children from 6 to 24 months old at the time of the survey and the mothers of the children living in Tan Chau town, An Giang province.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>Research shows that the average weight and length increase with age group, and boys have higher corresponding average values than girls. The malnutrition group has the highest malnutrition rate in the age group of 6-12 months at 27.2% and the lowest in the age group of 19-24 months at 2.6%. Undernourished group in the Stunted category has the highest undernourishment rate in the age group of 6-12 months at 44.1% and the lowest in the age group of 19-24 months at 25.7%. Undernourished group in the Wasted category has the highest undernourishment rate in the age group of 13-18 months at 13.9% and the lowest in the age group of 19-24 months at 2.6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>: </strong>The malnutrition status of children aged 6-24 months of the Cham ethnic group in Tan Chau town, An Giang province in 2018 is still quite high.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/5993 Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function status in children with congenital heart disease with irreversible and reversible pulmonary hypertension compared to normal children 2024-03-21T22:55:43+0530 M. Tariqul Islam kariul@hotmail.com Hira Nand Yadav tariqul125@yahoo.com Tahmina Karim tariqul125@yahoo.com Mohammad S. Alam tariqul125@yahoo.com Chaity Barua tariqul125@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is prevalent in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), particularly in association with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is crucial for detecting, assessing severity, and monitoring CHD patients with PH. The current study aimed to compare RV function assessed by TTE between CHD patients with PH and healthy children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The case group comprised CHD patients diagnosed with PH via TTE and confirmed by cardiac catheterization. The control group included children with normal echocardiograms. A total of 40 patients were enrolled based on predefined criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study included 20 cases and 20 controls. Echocardiographic parameters revealed significant differences between the case and control groups, with increased RV dimensions in the case group, except for RV subcostal wall thickness. RV systolic function parameters, including tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S'), were significantly lower in the case group. RV diastolic function parameters, including E/A ratio, E/e', and deceleration time (DT), were also significantly different between the groups. The RV global function parameter, tissue Doppler imaging-derived myocardial performance index (TD MPI), was significantly higher in the case group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Echocardiographic evaluation of RV function, including TAPSE, S', TD MPI, E/A ratio, E/e', and DT, in CHD children with PH correlates with PH severity. This assessment can aid in early detection of PH severity before irreversible changes occur and serve as an alternative to right heart catheterization.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6043 The use of foot length and foot breadth in estimating standing height of adolescents in Yenagoa, Nigeria 2024-04-15T22:34:21+0530 Maureen A. Okumoko maureenokumoko04@gmail.com Felix O. Akinbami maureenokumoko04@gmail.com Oliemen Peterside maureenokumoko04@gmail.com Adebola E. Orimadegun maureenokumoko04@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Previous studies have shown that when standing height is difficult to measure, the length of other body parts may be a reliable alternative. However, there is limited information about the use of foot length (FL) and foot breadth (FB) in estimating standing height in the African population. The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriateness of foot length and foot breadth in estimating standing height of adolescents in Yenagoa.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Using a multistage sampling technique, 1222 adolescents were recruited from secondary schools in the Yenagoa local government area. Height, foot length, and foot breadth were measured using standard techniques. Data was analysed and equations for prediction of standing height from foot length and foot breadth, were derived. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean standing height of the females was significantly lower than that of males (p&lt;0.001). The mean foot length and mean foot breath for males were significantly higher than those for females. The mean foot length and mean foot breadth were found to increase across all the stages of adolescence. There was a significant positive correlation between standing height and foot length (r=0.700; p&lt;0.001), foot breadth (r=0.543; p&lt;0.001), and age (r=0.369; p&lt;0.001). Multiple linear regression was used to derive equations for the estimation of FL and FB.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study found that FL and FB can be used in the estimation of standing height. For adolescents in Yenagoa, the equations derived are recommended for predicting the standing height of those who have difficulty standing upright.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/5939 Clinical and hematological profile of newborns delivered to mothers with pregnancy induced hypertension: a tertiary centre study 2024-02-16T15:33:56+0530 Neerja Mishra neerja06mishra@gmail.com Arun Kumar Arya arunped253@yahoo.com Pavika Lal arunped253@yahoo.com Tanu Midha neerja06mishra@gmail.com Neelima Verma neerja06mishra@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pregnancy induced hypertension in women is a major cause of pregnancy related maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Aim was to compare the clinical and hematological profile of newborns of mothers with and without pregnancy induced hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This hospital-based case control study was conducted in Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital, Kanpur. Clinical and hematological profile of newborns of mothers with or without PIH were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The low gestational age (35.44±2.89 weeks), low birth weight, thrombocytopenia (1.31±0.65 lakhs/mm<sup>3</sup>), absolute neutropenia (7.71×10<sup>3</sup>±5.24×10<sup>3</sup>cells/mm<sup>3</sup>) and deranged coagulation profile in newborns was found to have significant association with PIH in their mothers (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study concluded that newborns of hypertensive mothers carry a risk for prematurity, small for gestational age, infection and bleeding in early neonatal life.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/5983 Clinical and biochemical profile among children admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and their correlation in prognosis of children admitted in pediatric intensive care unit 2024-03-27T17:53:21+0530 Payal Choudhary payal.02july@gmail.com M. Asif rntianasif@gmail.com Suresh Goyal deanpims@pacificmedicalsciences.ac.in <p><strong>Background: </strong>The present study aimed to analyse clinical and biochemical profile among children admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and their correlation in prognosis of children admitted in PICU.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The prospective study was conducted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of RNT medical college, Udaipur among 50 DKA children in the age group of (1 month-18 years) for a period of one year after approval of institutional ethics committee. In the study, HbA1c level was measured by automated analyzer method to find out the past 3-month duration of glycemic control. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the correlation between serum osmolality and GCS, serum osmolality and duration of hospital stay, correlation between HbA1c levels and GCS, HbA1c levels and duration of hospital stay.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The most common presenting complaint was respiratory distress (72%) followed by vomiting (54%), polyuria (34%), polydipsia (24%), pain in abdomen (24%), fever (24%) and polyphagia (4%). There was negative correlation between HbA1c and depressed sensorium, i.e. patients with higher HbA1c levels had poor GCS and it was statistically significant. Patients with higher HbA1c levels had longer duration of hospital stay, although this observation was not statistically significant. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study concluded that patients presenting with DKA had severe derangement in acid-base parameters. The DKA patients who had higher serum osmolality and poor glycemic control had depressed sensorium at the time of hospital admission and a longer recovery time leading to a prolonged hospital stay, adding to the morbidity associated with the disease.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6035 Role of inflammatory markers in predicting mortality and outcome of acute encephalitis syndrome in children of Eastern Uttar Pradesh India 2024-04-15T18:16:12+0530 Kamaldeep Singh drkamaldeepsingh013@gmail.com Bhoopendra Sharma drbhoopy@rediffmail.com Vijay Kumar Singh vijaysingh.vns.o4@gmail.com Priyanka Singh priyankasingh.pedia@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study was performed to study the role of inflammatory markers viz. C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, serum ferritin and serum lactate dehydrogenase in predicting the mortality and outcome in patients with acute encephalitis syndrome admitted to pediatrics ICU, BRD medical college, Gorakhpur.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 140 patients/children of the age group ranging from 1 year to 16 years admitted in the acute encephalitis syndrome unit of BRDMC during 1 August 2021 to 31 July 2022 were analyzed with the prospective observational study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Vaccination status (p&lt;0.001) and socioeconomic status (p=0.020) were associated with mortality outcome in AES patients. Serum procalcitonin levels with cut off value &gt;0.10 mg/dl and serum LDH levels with cut off value of 480u/L have shown a positive association with the mortality in AES patients. (p=0.041 and p=0.038, and strength of association is 0.67 and 0.65, respectively. C-reactive protein with a cut-off value 10 mg/dl and serum ferritin with a cut-off value 140 ng/ml have shown no association with mortality with p values of 0.143 and 0.267, respectively. The Area under the ROC curve is maximum for serum procalcitonin (0.937) with a cut-off value 0.10 ng/dl with 100% sensitivity and 75.8% specificity (confidence interval 95%: 0.894-0.980). The negative predictive value is 100% and PPV is 13.7%. Similarly, the area under the ROC curve for CRP with a cut-off 10mg/dl is 0.900 (confidence interval 95%: 0.841-0.959) with 100% sensitivity of and 64.8%. specificity. Consequently, the negative predictive value is 100 % and the positive predictive value of 11.1%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> For predicting the mortality in AES patients 2 prognostic markers viz. C reactive protein and procalcitonin can prove to be promising prognostic screening tests, and therefore, both the tests are advised consecutively.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6050 Umbilical hernia in pediatric patients attending outpatient department in tertiary care centre 2024-04-19T13:54:41+0530 Harsh Vardhan Sharma harshv381@gmail.com Ifra Rasool harshv381@gmail.com Ravinder K. Gupta urvigupta00@gmail.com Ariba Afeeh harshv381@gmail.com Anmol Khajuria harshv381@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Umbilical hernias are estimated to affect 15% of children. Age, race, gestational age, and coexisting disorders are some of the variables that affect it. In comparison to the general population, there are greater incidences of connective tissue illnesses in children, premature delivery, low birth weight, syndromic newborns, black children, and children with pathologies that raise intraabdominal pressure. To determine the prevalence and to assess the risk factors of umbilical hernia in pediatric patients attending outpatient department (OPD) in tertiary care centre.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present observational study was conducted in paediatric OPD, of a tertiary care centre over a period of one year. A total of 100 study subjects were enrolled with suspected umbilical hernia. The data was collected with the help of a structured clinical proforma and analysed with SPSS version 20.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study the most prevalent age group involved being 0-1 years (6%) followed by 8-10 years (3%) and 2-4 years (2%). Umbilical hernia was seen more in males (64%) than females. Low birth weight (81%), premature delivery (54.54%), and undernutrition (90.9%) were the risk factors that were observed to be associated with the development of umbilical hernia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that the overall prevalence of umbilical hernia was 11% and the associated risk factors were premature delivery, low birth weight and poor nutrition.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/5989 Study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents of children with bronchial asthma in a tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad 2024-04-03T16:57:08+0530 Kavya Menon kavyamebnon94@gmail.com Hetal D. Vora hetal.smtscl@gmail.com Snehal V. Patel drsnehalpatel@yahoo.com Nirali P. Desai npd2898@gmail.com Palak D. Pandya palakpandya97@gmail.com Halak J. Vasavada halakvasavada@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Asthma is common chronic diseases among children. The impact of asthma in children depends on complex interactions between disease severity, reaction of children towards disease, treatment efficiency, social roles, and social environment. This study aims to assess the level of knowledge, the common misconceptions and the common attitudes and practices prevalent among parents of asthmatic children, which can help paediatricians in educating parents and the public about the disease.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>It was hospital based cross sectional study. Parents with bronchial asthmatic children between 3 and 12 years of age were interviewed based on predefined criteria. A proforma was used to collect data of parents and disease history of children. The 45-item questionnaire with three domains: knowledge, attitude, practice of bronchial asthma was scored. Higher scores indicated better KAP.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 90 respondents, 64.4% had poor knowledge and 35.6% had good knowledge. About 44.4% respondents had negative attitude and 81.1% had poor practice.</p> <p>There was a poor attitude on the usage of asthma controller medication and the time of stoppage of the medicines. Overall, the attitude was on an average scale in more than 50.0% of the respondents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Around 2/3<sup>rd</sup> parents had poor knowledge and negative attitude and ⅘ had poor practice. There was a significant association for the severity and duration of the disease with the knowledge and practice There was a significant conversion of good knowledge to practice.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/5999 Effectiveness of balloon therapy versus incentive spirometry in promotion of respiratory function in children with lower respiratory tract diseases in selected hospitals Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 2024-03-26T00:22:03+0530 Sukriti Tiwari aukrititiwari3018@gmail.com Jyoti Yadav jy63365@gmail.com Sebi Das sebidasdutta@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the most common infections that affect children’s respiratory systems it develops when the lung, specifically the lower airways become infected. The present study aims that breathing exercise helps to strengthen the children’s lungs and help to reduce the severity of respiratory sign and symptoms. So, balloon breathing exercises will be more acceptable among children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 60 children diagnosed with LRTI at selected hospitals, Lucknow by using a convenient sampling technique. The clinical respiratory score scale (CRS), PedsQL (Multidimensional fatigue scale) was used to measure respiratory parameter and level of fatigue. Written permission was obtained from the authorities of Balrampur hospital and Vivekananda polyclinic and institute of medical sciences, Lucknow where the study was conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. All p values less than 0.05 were treated as significant.0.83±0.61 of the children in the experimental group and 0.93±0.88 in the control group and a p=0.536. This illustrates that overall CRS had no significant difference and results of comparison of the experimental and control group -4.0625±6.86765, -4.0517±3.93027 respectively. P=0.994 which is not statistically different.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that as per the present research study data, balloon therapy was found to be effective. Hence, the present research hypothesis (H1, H2, H3) is accepted.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6001 Bacterial profiling, sensitivity and resistance pattern of neonatal sepsis in neonatal intensive care unit of tertiary care hospital 2024-03-26T14:56:40+0530 Shaunak Srivastav shaunaksrivastav@gmail.com Manisha Verma vermamanisha123@outlook.com Shaila Mitra shaila.prasad14@yahoo.co.in Gaurav Dwivedi grdnikhil@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to identify the distribution of pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in the neonates admitted to the NICU of a tertiary care hospital in northern India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> After obtaining written informed consent, neonates with confirmed or suspected cases of neonatal sepsis (n=167) aged 0-28 days were included. As soon as the baby arrived, all the clothes were removed and kept in a pre-heated warmer. Before administering I/V antibiotics, all the routine and culture samples were taken. The clinical data were collected and analysed using SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Most of the neonates were from lower middle class, out-born, LSCS, early preterm, and low birth weight (LBW). 167 neonates had culture-confirmed infections [blood culture positive (13.8%) and sepsis screen positive (86.2%)]. Gastric aspirate cytology was positive in 61.7% of patients. Maximum cytology-positive cases were seen in neonates with EOS. The most common risk factors were birth asphyxia. 142 individuals were discharged, with 72.5% diagnosed with EOS and 89% with LOS. There was a significant difference in gastric aspirate cytology when associated with expiry and discharge. Out of 167 neonates, 13.77% were culture-positive for neonatal sepsis. Out of 23 organisms, 82.6% were resistant, while, 17.4% were not. Staph aureus was the major causative organisms. Among the Gram Positive and Negative bacteria, the highest sensitivity was observed for imipenum. All gram-positive bacteria were resistant to cotrimazole, tobramycin, and erythromycin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Implementation of effective preventive strategies to combat the emergence of antibiotic resistance is urgently needed.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6009 Parental perception of neonatal care in urban slums of Jammu city 2024-03-29T00:24:06+0530 Sharvil Dhar sharvildhar37@gmail.com Ravinder K. Gupta urvigupta00@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>India is undergoing rapid urbanization and many rural residents relocate to urban regions in search of employment, better living conditions and access to education and health care facilities. Neonatal morbidity and mortality are attributed to misperceptions in the community about newborn care. In many parts of urban slums in India, care seeking from multiple providers and use of traditional/home remedies hampered appropriate and timely medical care seeking. Aim was to study awareness, knowledge and practice of newborn care among postnatal mothers in Urban slums of Jammu city.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This observational study was conducted in Urban slums of Jammu city. A total of 100 mothers of newborns residing in urban slums participated in the study after taking Informed Consent from them. A self-structured proforma was used to collect data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Most of the deliveries were conducted in hospital (82%) and 18% were home deliveries. Regarding newborn care practices 88 % had wrapped the newborn with clean cloth immediately after birth. 58% of newborns were given first bath within 2-7 days. 39% of mothers-initiated breast feeding within 6-24 hours. Majority (68%) newborns were fed with colostrum. Regarding cord cutting procedures among home deliveries, it was observed that clean blade was used in 15 newborns while in 3 cases aseptic practice for cord cutting was not followed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Good newborn practices like promotion of warmth, cord care, hygiene and early breastfeeding should be the main focus of community-based health workers. The present study concluded that some unhealthy neonatal care practices were still found to be prevalent which can be mitigated by increasing awareness among parents through IEC activities.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6010 Determination of immunisation status of children between 2-5 years of age who attending to teaching institute with concern to both national immunization schedule and optional vaccines 2024-03-29T11:07:36+0530 Vudaga Hanshila research.nmch@rediffmail.com Shaik Khadeer research.nmch@rediffmail.com Syeda Sumera research.nmch@rediffmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: In order to know the causes for non-immunisation, search for societal reasons for primary immunisation along with evaluating coverage. Aim of this current study is to determine the immunisation status of children between 2-5 years of age who are attending teaching health care centre with concern to both National Immunisation Schedule and Optional vaccines.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Study analysed the children's immunisation status, factors affecting their immunisation coverage, and reasons for partial or incomplete immunisation. The information was obtained from the parents using a questionnaire. Information such as socio-demographic variables, immunisation status, causes of their partial immunisation and lack of immunisation. The "vaccination card and the recall" approach was used to determine the recipient's immunisation status.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Study found that 70.4% of children had received all recommended vaccinations. Lack of information and ignorance are significant contributors to under-immunization. Other statistically significant contributing factors for the low immunisation coverage include female gender, rural background, low socioeconomic status, born at home, lower mother age, and being from a joint household. BCG vaccination coverage was higher than pentavalent vaccine coverage, probably because of multiple doses needed. Only 77% of kids received vitamin A solution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Paediatrician should mention the next vaccination date and dose at each appointment in order to lower the vaccination dropouts. Parents should be informed regarding the date of vaccination of their child through SMS message, calls, and social media groups.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6064 Severe malaria in adolescents in the post-COVID-19 era, at the university hospital of Libreville 2024-04-29T03:23:23+0530 Steeve Mintoo steeve.mintoo@yahoo.fr Fifi C. Loembe fificlaireloembe1001@gmail.com Sylvie Mpira nisylmpira@gmail.com Jean Koko jeankoko06@yahoo.fr Simon J. Ategbo sategbo@yahoo.fr <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria is a parasitic, life-threatening, vector-borne disease that is a significant public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The disorganization of health systems characterized the COVID-19 pandemic period. We aimed to assess the impact of these induced changes on adolescent malaria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We conducted a longitudinal study during the 2021 year in our pediatric ward. We enrolled all patients treated for malaria based on a positive thick smear and rapid diagnostic test for malaria. We noted the age, the delay to consultation, the signs at admission, the haemogram test, the parasites count, and the duration of stay.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 1734 inpatients, 689 (39.7% (95% CI [37.4%-42%]) were for malaria, including 128 adolescents. We rated 417 (24.3%; 95% CI [22.3%-26.3%]) cases of severe malaria, including 94 (73.4%; 95% IC [65.8-81.1%]) adolescents. The median delay to consultation for adolescents was 2 days vs children 3 days p=0.004. Admission signs were leads by fever (98%), prostration (38%) and pallor (32%). The median length of hospital stay for adolescents was 3 days vs children 4 days (p=0.0263). Adolescent status was associated with more severe forms (OR=2.04 95% CI [1.33-3.13]) and more cerebral forms (OR=3.8 95% CI [2.6-5.6]).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The post-COVID-19 era was marked by a higher incidence of malaria and severe forms in adolescents, primarily cerebral malaria. Due to potential sequelae, they need a follow-up to estimate the real aftermaths of the pandemic on the children population.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6073 Nutritional care practices for children from 6 to 24 months old by Cham ethnic mothers 2024-05-13T13:17:11+0530 Quang Hien Tran tranquanghienag@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aims to explore the nutritional care practices for children from 6 to 24 months old by Cham ethnic mothers in Tan Chau town, An Giang province in 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted on Cham ethnic children aged from 6 to 24 months and their mothers living in Tan Chau town, An Giang province.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The rate of mothers practicing proper and sufficient prenatal care during pregnancy is 74.4%; the rate of mothers engaging in lighter work than before pregnancy is 64.2%; the rate of mothers eating more than before pregnancy is 72.2%; the rate of mothers taking iron supplements during pregnancy is high at 85%. Practices regarding the timing of weaning children are not good, with 36.8% of mothers weaning children at the wrong time. Practices for feeding children supplementary foods are relatively good: 90.7% of mothers feed their children at the right time, however, the rate of mothers providing children with a complete range of food groups is only 23.0%. Maternal care practices for sick children have many shortcomings, with 81.7% of mothers feeding children incorrectly when they have diarrhea, and only 38.4% of children receiving oral rehydration solution (ORS) when they have diarrhea. Personal hygiene practices of the mother and child care are not good, with 24.3% of mothers not properly performing hand hygiene for themselves and their children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> We need to strengthen propaganda and consulting work for each group of subjects, especially the Cham ethnic people, on nutritional care practices for children from 6-24 months old.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6018 Storytelling using self-designed image-based storybook as tools for reducing dental anxiety in 5 to 12-years-old children: a narrative therapy 2024-04-03T17:17:51+0530 Amritha Krishnadasan amrithakrishnadasan@gmail.com Jyothsna V. Setty jyothsnasrikanth@gmail.com Ashwani Mohan drashwanimohan@gmail.com Aparna Jai Krishna aparnajaikrishna@gmail.com Ila Srinivasan drilasri@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Children commonly experience dental anxiety, marked by a general feeling of fear when they have not encountered the situation before. By incorporating positive dental information through storytelling or engaging dental activity books, children can be effectively reassured and mentally prepared for their initial dental appointments. Storytelling and storybooks in healthcare serves multiple functions such as educating patients and their families, promoting specific qualities, and enhancing behaviors.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A randomized clinical study involving 240 children aged 5 to 12 years was conducted. The children were randomly assigned to three groups of 80 each: group 1 (received storytelling with image-based storybook), group 2 (received only storytelling), and the control group (received neither). Pulse rate and anxiety assessment using animated emoji scale measurements were taken at the start of the appointment, after the intervention before treatment, and after dental treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The interventional groups 1 and 2 showed a significant difference compared to the control group for pulse rate and animated emoji scale. Group 1 exhibited the highest reduction in anxiety as measured using the animated emoji scale and pulse rate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>In conclusion, providing children with a dental storybook before dental treatment can decrease dental anxiety and improve their behavior during the dental treatment.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6030 Factors affecting postnatal weight gain of very low birth weight babies during NICU stay in a tertiary care centre in Southern India: an observational study 2024-04-07T22:44:37+0530 Vidhya Shankari Nanjappan drvidhyashankari@gmail.com Senthil Kumar K. drvidhyashankari@gmail.com Senguttuvan Duraisamy drvidhyashankari@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> The survival of very low birth weight babies has significantly improved in recent years. Postnatal growth has an impact on neurodevelopment and hence identifying the risk factors that curb growth is crucial.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We did a retrospective cohort study over 3 months in our NICU studying 40 very low birth weight babies. Our objective was to observe the time taken to regain birth weight and study the risk factors affecting postnatal weight gain.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 40 babies studied, 22 babies had significant delay in regaining birth weight. Risk factors such as birth weight, birth asphyxia, parenteral nutrition, respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant requirement, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, hyperbilirubinemia, anemia had statistically significant association with delay in regaining birth weight.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Many studies have established a linear correlation between postnatal growth velocity and neurodevelopmental outcome. Ascertaining and managing the factors affecting weight gain in very low birth weight babies is essential and challenging part and anticipating the risk factors in advance helps us to achieve desirable weight gain in these babies.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6031 Cutaneous findings in neonates and their socio-demographic profile: a prospective observational study 2024-04-14T12:42:29+0530 Ariba Afeeh aribaafeeh@gmail.com Ifra Rasool aribaafeeh@gmail.com Ravinder K. Gupta urvigupta00@gmail.com Anirudh Mahajan aribaafeeh@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> A wide range of disorders can manifest as skin lesions due to the great difficulty the skin encounters while transitioning from an aqueous to a dry environment in a neonate. Among the skin conditions commonly seen in neonates are temporary benign lesions, atopic dermatitis (and associated disorders), bullous dermatoses. Aim was to study the various patterns of skin lesions in neonates and to estimate the prevalence of physiological and pathological skin lesions.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This prospective observational study was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital (ASCOMS) a tertiary care hospital in Jammu. A total of 300 neonates (day 1 to day 28 of life) and having any skin lesions or manifestations born at the hospital or visiting out patient’s department were included in the study. The data collected was compiled on excel sheet and was analyzed statistically by using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was found that the most of the skin manifestations were observed in neonates born to multiparous mothers at term gestation and having average weight. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The frequency of the cutaneous manifestations were seen more in neonates born via the caesarean section.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is concluded that the most common skin lesion was erythema toxicum followed by icterus neonatorum.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6032 Changes in biomarkers of lipid in juvenile idiopathic arthritis and its association with various disease parameters: a 6-month follow-up study 2024-04-08T20:40:14+0530 Sonali Mitra sonalimitra345@gmail.com Madhumita Nandi madhumitabanik@rediffmail.com Saikat Mahato saikat.nilratan@gmail.com Durjoy Lahiri dlahiri1988@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> The objectives of our study were to determine the changes in lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and assess its association with epidemiological and clinical profile of JIA patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This observational study was performed with 46 patients at presentation followed by 38 cases at 3 months and 18 cases at 6 months of follow up. Their demographic profile and clinical parameters including juvenile disease activity score (JADAS 27) were compared with the biomarkers of lipid profile.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean (SD) age was 105.85 (20.23) months at first visit with mean (SD) disease duration being 15 (6.4) months. Twenty-six participants had oligoarthritic (56.5%), while the rest had polyarthritis (43.4%). Most of the patients had borderline raised TG and LDL-C (cases with raised TG n=14 (30.4%), 12 (31.5%), 5 (27.7%) at 1<sup>st </sup>visit, 3 months, and 6 months respectively and LDL-C n=12 (26%), 10 (26.3%), 6 (33.3%) at 1<sup>st</sup>visit, 3 months, and 6 months respectively). HDL-C level was low in 36 (78.2%) cases at first visit, 28 cases (73.6%) at 3 months and 12 cases (66.6%) at 6 months respectively. Lipid profile was significantly affected by gender difference, duration of disease and drug therapy (p&lt;0.05). Significant association have been found between JADAS score and TGL level with p value 0.03.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Children with JIA definitely suffer from dyslipidemia. Among the biomarkers of lipid profile, low level of HDL-C is one of the most important highlights of our study. Further studies can help to strengthen the findings and formulate necessary interventions at an early stage.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6034 Understanding the enigma of neurobehavior in children with epilepsy and the need for mandatory screening: a prospective case control study 2024-04-10T13:37:36+0530 Sowmya Vernekar vernekarsowmya@gmail.com Arun Y. Bylappa vernekarsowmya@gmail.com Uddhav Kinhal vernekarsowmya@gmail.com Sanjay K. Shivappa vernekarsowmya@gmail.com <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">Background: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">In epilepsy management, control of seizures is the prime objective and reduction in seizure frequency is the main goal for successful treatment. There is a high prevalence of neurobehavioral problem. Hence, there is a need to screen, and intervene. Aim was to identify the neurobehavioral profile and the impact on children with epilepsy</span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">Methods: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">After IRB clearance, 100 consecutive school-aged children 4-17 years with normal IQ attending epilepsy clinic were enrolled as cases, and 102 age, gender and socio-economic status-matched children without epilepsy were chosen as controls. The strength and difficulties questionnaire are administered to both groups. It addresses five domains: emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems which contribute to the total difficulties score, and fifth dimension prosocial behaviour.</span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">Results: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">Among the children with epilepsy, emotional issues were observed in 41%, conduct issues in 67%, hyperactivity behaviour in 54%, and peer problems in 64% while pro-social behaviour was only 27%, and total difficulty score was 60%, which was statistically significant with p&lt;0.001 in all domains when compared to control. The impact of the disease was 73%, home environment was affected in 67%, classroom learning 45%, 28% in leisure activities, and 10% in friendship, which was statistically significant with p&lt;0.001 in all domains when compared to control. </span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">Conclusions: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">We have identified emotional, conduct, hyperactivity and peer problems having significant impact on children with epilepsy. Hence a screening in various behavioural domains helps in early identification and prompt intervention of neurobehavior. </span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> </span></p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6036 Incidence and outcomes of ventilator associated pneumonia in pediatric patients: an observational study 2024-04-15T18:17:45+0530 Ashok Kumar Ashok Kumar ashokdr300@gmail.com Suresh N. Singh pediasuresh@gmail.com Vijay K. Singh vijaysingh.vns.o4@gmail.com Priyanka Singh priyankasingh.pedia@gmail.com Bhoopendra Sharma drbhoopy@rediffmail.com Harish C. Tiwari dr.haishchandratiwari@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is very common in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) intubated patients and also responsible for major morbidity and mortality. Usually, it develops after 48 hours of mechanically ventilated patients, its incidence increases as the duration of time increases and it is a major risk factor for VAP. The present study was carried out to know the overall incidence of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients in PICU.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was carried out in PICU of the department of pediatrics, B. R. D. Medical College, Gorakhpur from October 2020 to October 2021. Patients aged between 1 year to 15 years were included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 50 (59.5%) patients’ male and 34 (40.5%) patients’ female under investigation. The clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) values ranged from the mean value of 4.38±2.30 at 36th hours to 7.33±1.92 at 96th hours of intubation. VAP was present in 23 (27.3%) patients while 62 (73.8%) patients were having no VAP. Among VAP associated patients, 14.3% were <em>Acinetobacter </em>positive, 5.95% were <em>Klebsiella </em>positive and 3.57% were <em>E. coli </em>positive.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Parameters of CPIS associated with VAP revealed that <em>Acinetobactor</em> was comparative more common organism and the age group of 1 to 5 years was more sensitive. VAP can be reduced by decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation.</p> <p> </p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6037 Epidemiological and clinical profiles of septic arthritis in children of 0-2 years of age in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India 2024-04-11T11:35:55+0530 Ekbal Ahmad eqbalkhansnmc@gmail.com Priyanka Singh priyankasingh.pedia@gmail.com Pawan Pradhan vijaysingh.vns.04@gmail.com Vijay Kumar Singh vijaysingh.vns.04@gmail.com Bhoopendra Sharma drbhoopy@rediffmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Septic arthritis identified as infectious arthritis is a serious joint infection following the invasion of joint cavities by infectious agents usually bacteria. Due to speediness of joint destruction untreated septic arthritis may result in morbidity and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Out of 71 sick children attending pediatric OPD/IPD of BRDMC Gorakhpur with musculoskeletal infection during November 2019 to October 2020, 52 patients of 0-2 years of age were enrolled for study. The computerized charts containing various parameters related to the epidemiological and clinical profiles of the patients were recorded and analyzed following statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 23.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 52 children 28.8% were neonates under the age of 28 days, 73.1% were full-term infants and 23.1% were premature. Likewise, 17.3% of the cases were with low birth weight whereas 7.7% had a history of septic infection. Hip joints in 65.4%, knee joints in 23.1% and elbow and shoulder joints in 5.8% of patients were infected. 44.2% of cases had right side involvement, 36.5% left side, 19.2% e bilateral joints, 80.8% Mono-articular and 19.2% showed poly-articular involvement. 84.6% of cases showed joint pain whereas 92.3% showed joint swelling. In 20% patients microbial culture of joint fluid revealed the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Candida </em>spp, <em>E. coli and Pseudomonas </em>spp. In 78.8% cases no growth of any pathogen was recorded in their blood culture. Ultrasonography (USG) diagnosis revealed fluid collection at joints in 94.2% cases while 5.8% exhibited pus collection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Septic arthritis was more common in males than females, monoarticular involvement was more common on the right side, hip joints were most affected joints and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was the most common pathogen affecting the patients.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6041 Nutritional status in patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit and its corelation with outcome 2024-04-13T19:22:42+0530 Maitri Patel maitrip1995@gmail.com Ankita Badhiye abadhiye@gmail.com Vaishali Chanpura chanpura92het@gmail.com Bhargav Patel bhargavpatel381@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>The incidence of malnutrition in children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), has always been significant. In addition, nutritional status of critically ill children deteriorates further during their PICU stay and may have negative effect on patients` outcome. This study aims to determine the critically ill children, to analyse and document its impact on outcome and to survey current nutritional practices and support in PICU.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a prospective observational study done over a period of 10 months on critically ill patients admitted in PICU of department of pediatrics at Baroda medical college and Sir Sayajirao Gaekwad hospital, Vadodara.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total of 350 patients admitted in PICU of S. S. G. hospital, Vadodara were enrolled in the study<strong>. </strong>Malnutrition was higher in age 6-60-month age group (57%) of patients admitted in PICU, 81% of severe acute malnutrition patients required mechanical ventilation and 19% required HFNC support, there was statistically significant difference in mortality (51.1%) of SAM patients as compared to normal patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of mortality in patients admitted to PICU, with more complications with prolonged ventilator support, longer duration of stay in PICU.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6042 Clinical and haematological parameters in malaria caused by different plasmodium species in children 2024-04-15T17:21:04+0530 Dipthi Nishal Castelino drdipthi29@gmail.com K. Shreedhara Avabratha shreedharkdr@fathermuller.in <p><strong>Background: </strong>Malaria is a disease of global importance and affects more than ninety countries in both the tropical and subtropical regions. Clinical and haematological parameters vary with type of malaria, although data relating to different species of malaria in children is limited. This study aims to understand the clinical and haematological profile of malaria and to correlate these with different malarial species among children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 130 proven malaria cases done over 18 months from October 2014 to April 2016. A detailed history and clinical examination along with haematological parameters were analysed and correlated with different types of malaria.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 130 children, 97 children were <em>vivax</em> positive, 4 were <em>falciparum</em> and 27 were mixed malaria. Fever was present in all, whilst other symptoms were chills and rigors (86.15%), vomiting (39.52%), headache (19%), pain abdomen (6.84%), myalgia (4.56%) and convulsions (1.52%). Clinical signs were pallor (29.64%), icterus (0.76%), splenomegaly (65.36%), hepatomegaly (23.56%) and hepatosplenomegaly (21.28%).75% of children with <em>falciparum</em> malaria had splenomegaly and pallor whereas hepatomegaly was observed in 34% of mixed malaria cases. Haematological parameters observed were anaemia (47.6%), severe anaemia (2%), leucocytosis (11.5%), leukopenia (39.2%), thrombocytopenia (87%) and severe thrombocytopenia (30%). Severe thrombocytopenia was seen with <em>vivax</em> malaria (70%). No mortality was noted in the studied population.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Fever and splenomegaly are important clinical features, whereas anaemia and thrombocytopenia are the most noted haematological parameters in malaria. The parameters vary with different species of malaria knowledge of clinical and haematological parameters aid us in early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment and prevention of associated complications.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6046 The utility value of ROX index and modified ROX index in determining the efficiency of HFNC in children admitted with respiratory distress 2024-04-16T10:07:29+0530 Sravni Kolla sravanikrishna2009@gmail.com Raviteja Meda sravanikrishna2009@gmail.com Lokeswari Balleda lballeda@gmail.com Chandrasekhara Reddy Thimmapuram drtcreddy33960@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> The ROX index is defined as the ratio of SpO<sub>2</sub>/FiO<sub>2</sub> to respiratory rate. The modified ROX index or ROX-HR index is defined as the ratio of ROX index/heart rate×100. The aim of the study was to determine the utility of the ROX index and the modified ROX index as predictors of initiation and efficiency of HFNC in children admitted with respiratory distress.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This prospective observational study included 133 children with respiratory distress, who received HFNC. The ROX index, and modified ROX index were measured, and outcomes were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total number of study subjects were 133. Statistically significant increase was seen in ROX index and modified ROX index at follow up (p value&lt;0.05). Interpretation of the area under the ROC curve showed that the performance of ROX index and modified ROX index at ‘0’ hour was outstanding. ROX Index and modified ROX Index at a Cut-off of ≤4.7959 and ≤2.5579 respectively at initiation i. e.; at ‘0’ hour predicted HFNC requirement. In prediction of HFNC requirement ROX index at ‘0’ hour had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 88.24%, 87.84%, 93%, and 80.2% respectively, and modified ROX index had 78.68%, 93.24%, 95.5%, and 70.4% respectively. Low ROX and modified ROX indices at ‘0’ hour predicted prolonged ICU and hospital stays, as well as extended HFNC duration.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Both ROX index, and modified ROX index were good predictors of HFNC requirement. </p> <p> </p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6003 Thrombocytopenia in children with acute encephalitis syndrome: a prospective observational study 2024-03-26T16:21:52+0530 Mahendra Pal drmahendrapatel007@gmail.com Manisha Verma vermamanisha123@outlook.com Chandrakanta Kumar dr_chandrakanta@yahoo.com Rashmi Kumar rashmik2005@gmail.com Amita Jain amita602002@yahoo.com Rashmi Kushwaha docrashmi27@yahoo.com V. K. Singh drvksingh05@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> The objective of this study is to find out the proportion of children with thrombocytopenia in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES); second, to compare the aetiology of AES in thrombocytopenic cases with non-thrombocytopenic cases; and finally, to find out clinical and laboratory predictors of thrombocytopenia in AES, as well as to study platelet aggregation and compare it in both scrub positive and scrub negative AES cases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This prospective observational study was conducted on 176 children with presumed viral aetiology were investigated to find out the cause of AES.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority of patients presented with thrombocytopenia. The most common aetiologies are Japanese encephalitis (JE). No significant difference was observed in the aetiology of AES between the thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic groups. Rash, bleeding, swelling, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were significantly more common in thrombocytopenic AES cases. Among the laboratory parameters, haemoglobin, PCV, and serum protein were found to be significantly low in the thrombocytopenic group. Liver enzymes, serum AST, and serum ALT were significantly high in the thrombocytopenic group. Platelet aggregation percentage was found to be significantly high in AES children who were positive for scrub typhus in comparison to other AES cases. Eighty-seven patients were discharged from the hospital. The mortality rate was 18%. There was no significant difference in the outcome of AES cases in relation to thrombocytopenia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This approach may help clinicians in the diagnosis of AES due to the scrub along with other tests available. There was no significant difference in the short-term outcome of AES cases in relation to thrombocytopenia.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6051 Serum ferritin levels in children of simple febrile seizures in tertiary institute 2024-04-19T13:18:04+0530 Anirudh Mahajan anirudhmahajan872@gmail.com Ifra Rasool anirudhmahajan872@gmail.com Ravinder K. Gupta urvigupta00@gmail.com Harsh Vardhan Sharma anirudhmahajan872@gmail.com Abhijay Mehta anirudhmahajan872@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Seizure onset is impacted by a number of variables, including genetics, diet, geography, concurrent illnesses, metabolic state, history of head trauma, and blood levels of particular minerals. Due to the fact that iron is required for the proper functioning of a number of enzymes and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, low blood ferritin levels may lower the seizure threshold. The aim of the study was to determine the association between serum ferritin levels and simple febrile seizures.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present observational study was conducted in department of pediatrics of a tertiary institute and included a total of 200 study subjects who visited to pediatric OPD/emergency room with febrile illness. The data was collected with the help of a structured clinical proforma. The collected data was recorded in Microsoft Excel sheet and statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study, the maximum number of the study subjects were between 13 and 24 months (35%) with male to female ratio 1.2:1. In patients with simple febrile seizure the mean Hb level was 9.1±1.4 gm/dl, the mean MCV was 72.6±7.4 f1, mean MCH was 23.73±3.2 pg and mean serum ferritin was 13.4±9.5 ng/ml as compared to those patients with febrile illness without seizure the mean Hb level was 11.5±1.2 gm/dl, mean MCV was 82.1±5.5 f1, mean MCH was 29.6±2.9 pg and mean serum ferritin was 33.6±20.2 ng/ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is concluded that the low serum ferritin level is a risk factor of simple febrile seizure.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6059 Clinico-etiological profile of acute liver failure in children in a tertiary care hospital of northernmost India 2024-04-24T13:06:48+0530 Khurshid Wani drbashiruzaman@gmail.com Jawad Nazir Wani drbashiruzaman@gmail.com Bashir U. Zaman drbashiruzaman@gmail.com Naseer Yousuf Mir drbashiruzaman@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Acute liver failure is a life-threatening condition with sudden onset liver injury, decreased liver functions, hepatic encephalopathy, and coagulopathy in patients without preexisting liver disease. The objective of this study was to find out the clinical and etiological factors of acute liver failure in children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was a hospital based prospective observational study conducted from November 2017 to October 2019 at Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Postgraduate Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College Srinagar, Kashmir. Fifty-one consecutive patients of ALF in the age group of 1 to 18 years were included in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The most common clinical presentation in our study was jaundice which was present in all cases followed by anorexia (90.2%), vomiting (84.3%), fever (76.5%) and abdominal pain (64.7%). HE was present at admission in 54.9% cases and exaggerated DTR’s was present in 49% cases. Of the other clinical manifestations, bleeding was present in 49% cases, ascites in 33.3% cases and edema in 5.9% cases. Infections (76.5%) were the most common cause of ALF in children followed by indeterminate (9.8%), autoimmune (5.9%), drug induced (3.9%), Wilson’s disease (2%) and HLH (2%). In infectious etiology, the most common cause was Hepatitis A (66.7%) followed by Enteric fever (7.8%) and Hepatitis E (2%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The most common clinical manifestation of ALF in children is Jandice. Hepatitis A is the most common cause of ALF in children.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6081 Related factors of the nutritional status of malnutrition in Cham ethnic children aged 6-24 months 2024-05-07T22:53:48+0530 Quang Hien Tran tranquanghienag@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aims to identify factors related to the nutritional status of children aged 6-24 months of the Cham ethnic group in Tan Chau town, An Giang province in 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross-sectional study. Cham ethnic children aged from 6 to 24 months at the time of the survey and their mothers living in Tan Chau town, An Giang province were included in the study as subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the underweight group, the risk of malnutrition for subsequent children is 2.5 times higher compared to the first-born children in the family, and this difference is statistically significant with p&lt;0.05. Among the underweight, stunted, and wasted groups, children with a birth weight of less than 2500 grams have a higher rate of malnutrition compared to those with a birth weight of 2500 grams or more, but this difference is not statistically significant with p&gt;0.05. In the underweight and wasted groups, children who frequently fall ill have a higher rate of malnutrition compared to those who do not fall ill often; however, this difference is not statistically significant with p&gt;0.05. No correlation has been found between the presence of congenital disabilities and the condition of stunting in children with p&gt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Several factors related to the personal lives of Cham ethnic children aged 6-24 months contribute to the state of malnutrition. It is necessary to enhance communication and counseling efforts to help reduce the malnutrition rate among children in the area as well as within the community.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6060 A study of morbidity and mortality markers in children diagnosed with severe dengue illness at a quaternary paediatric intensive care unit 2024-05-01T17:08:20+0530 Derrick John Johnson drderrickjohnson@yahoo.com Balakrishna Bandari drbalakrishna.srh@gmail.com Prashant Bachina prashant.bachina@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> To identify the biochemical, haematological, and serological laboratory parameters and establish associations between mortality risk and children with severe dengue fever (DF).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This retro-prospective study included 251 children who were dengue serology positive, aged between 1 month and 18 years, hospitalized in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with severe dengue illness from July 2019 to June 2021. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were extracted from hospital's electronic database and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority had a mean age of 5.46 years with a significant female predominance (58.2%). Also, 80.1 per cent of children presented in the critical phase with an average PICU stay of 3.59 days. There was a significant mortality risk associated with presenting day of illness (risk 9.5%), ventilation requirements (risk 29.8%), and stay of more than a week in the PICU (risk 36%), with that of the severity of outcomes. The odds of increased mortality risk were associated with prolonged PICU stay exceeding a week and ventilation requirements by 10.03 and 20.19 times respectively. Investigation-wise, abnormal liver enzymes on admission such as SGOT (OR 5.39, p&gt;0.0001); and serum SGPT (OR 5.54, p&lt;0.001) were significantly associated with poorer outcomes. Interestingly, neither thrombocytopenia nor leucopenia was found to be a true marker of mortality and the overall mortality rate was found to be 8.4% (n=21).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Any stay of more than a week, abnormal liver enzymes on admission, and ventilation requirements were all associated with higher mortality risk and potential predictors for poor clinical outcomes in the PICU.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics https://www.ijpediatrics.com/index.php/ijcp/article/view/6026 The efficacy and safety of patent ductus arteriosus stent versus surgical aortopulmonary shunt in the management of babies with duct dependent circulation: a meta-analysis and review of literature 2024-04-03T22:35:23+0530 Aditi Das aditidas2306@gmail.com Satish Koirala aditidas2306@gmail.com Neeraj Awasthy aditidas2306@gmail.com <p>This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively assess the efficacy and safety of both patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) stents and surgical aortopulmonary shunt (APS) as the initial palliative measures in babies relying on ductal-dependent circulation. This review is essential to compare the outcome of relatively newer catheter-based PDA stent procedure with a surgical APS. By synthesizing existing literature, this review aims to provide insights to inform clinical practice and enhance patient care in this challenging clinical scenario. The methodology involved an extensive search of PubMed and Embase databases using specific keywords and terminology related to mortality, procedural outcomes, and postprocedural complications following PDA stent and APS in cyanotic congenital heart defects (CHD) patients. Six retrospective observational studies met the criteria, with 757 patients included. The analysis showed comparable mortality rates between PDA stents and APS. However, PDA stents were associated with decreased risks of mechanical circulatory support, postprocedural complications, and shorter hospital stays, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit stays compared to APS. Notably, patients with pulmonary atresia scheduled for biventricular surgery were more prevalent among those receiving PDA stents. In conclusion, while the risk of mortality is similar between PDA stents and APS, PDA stents offer advantages such as shorter hospital stays and reduced complications. Patient characteristics also vary, with a higher prevalence of intact ventricular septum among those receiving PDA stents.</p> 2024-05-27T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics