DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20184268

Profile of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns in a tertiary care centre of Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India

C. Sudhakar, Pallavi Jindal

Abstract


Background: Birth asphyxia is an important cause of static development and neurological handicap in both term and preterm infants. Birth asphyxia is found to be responsible for 28.7% deaths in hospital settings and 20% deaths in rural/tribal areas. Approximately the same number develops serious sequelae which cripples these children both physically and mentally. Children who have suffered moderate encephalopathy had varying rates of infant death and morbidity. Precise determination of the prognosis in the term new born, who sustains a hypoxic ischemic insult is hindered by difficulty in determining the severity of insult.

Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal, observational study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, CMC Bhilai with close association with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Radio diagnosis and Department of Neurology. All deliveries taking place in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of CMC Bhilai were enrolled for the study. Each enrolled infant underwent a detailed neurologic examination within the first 12 hours after birth. During the period of data collection 180 babies with birth asphyxia were admitted to NICU. Out of which 126 babies had fulfilled the inclusion criteria and completed one year follow up, hence as cases. Babies who lost follow up were not included in study. The neurological examination was performed 14 days after discharge, then at 1 month, 3-month, 6-month, 9 month and 12 months. Long term outcome in this study is defined as outcome at one year of age in terms of morbidity and mortality.

Results: The female and male ratio is 0.4:1. Most of the asphyxiated newborn, 81 (64%) were in 2500-3000gm. Among the study population, maximum number of cases 76 (60%) were suffering from HIE-I. Majority of study population, 87 (69%) were born by LSCS. Normal CUS in 93 babies and abnormal in 33 babies; with normal CUS, there were no death in study population and out of 33 abnormal CUS, 12 deaths occurred. Out of the different complications enlisted in the table convulsions (66.7%) is most common followed by Apnea (65.08%). Recurrent infections (45.24%) is the most common complication followed by seizure disorders (22.63%) and failure to thrive (20.63%).

Conclusions: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is one of the major consequences of perinatal asphyxia. Despite of best care, some babies are likely to develop it.


Keywords


Cranial ultrasound, Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, Perinatal asphyxia

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