DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20173783

Serum vitamin D concentration in acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants: a case control study from Northern India

Parvez Ahmed, Javeed Iqbal Bhat, Shilakha Chaman, Ambreen Ali Ahangar

Abstract


Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is believed to be the most common nutritional deficiency and one of the most undiagnosed medical conditions in this region. People across the world are becoming increasingly aware of the role played by vitamin D in health and disease, especially its role in immunity and its anti-infective role. The present study was conducted to study the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and severity of respiratory tract infections. To study the relation between serum vitamin D levels and severity of acute respiratory tract infections.

Methods: 1-year prospective study from September 2014 to August 2015. Children from 1 month to 1 year of age participated in the study. Serum Vitamin D levels were measured in case group suffering from severe acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) and in a control group. The primary outcome variable was difference in serum vitamin D levels between case group and control group.

Results: The median (IQR) age of cases and controls was 5.0 (4.75) months and 4.0 (4.0) months, respectively. There were no significant differences in baseline demographic and anthropometric parameters between the 2 groups.  The median vitamin D level in a case group was significantly lower compared with matched controls (p <0.05).

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is an important independent risk factor for childhood pneumonia. We found a severe vitamin D deficiency of our infants suffering from severe acute lower respiratory tract infections. The deficiency was more prevalent in exclusive breast feed infants. 


Keywords


Vitamin D, Respiratory tract infections

Full Text:

PDF

References


Holick MF. Vitamin D: extraskeletal health. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2012;38:141-60.

Asakura H, Aoshima K, Suga Y, Yamazaki M, Morishita E, Saito M et al. Beneficial effect of the active form of vitamin D3 against LPSinduced DIC but not against tissue-factor-induced DIC in rat models. Thromb Haemost. 2001;85:287-290

Black PN, Scragg R. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and pulmonary function in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Chest. 2005;128(6):3792-8.

Singhellakis PN, Malandrinou FCh, Psarrou CJ, Danelli AM, Tsalavoutas SD, Constandellou ES. Vitamin D deficiency in white, apparently healthy, free-living adults in a temperate region. Hormones (Athens). 2011;10(2):131-43.

Harinarayanan CV, Joshi SR. Vitamin D status in India – Its implications and remedial measures. J Assoc Physicians. 2009;57:40-8.

Williams B, Williams AJ, Anderson ST. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in children with tuberculosis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2008;27:941-2.

Muhe L, Lulseged S, Mason KE, Simoes EA. Case-control study of the role of nutritional rickets in the risk of developing pneumonia in Ethiopian children. Lancet. 1997;349:1801-4.

Bachrach VR, Schwarz E, Bachrach LR. Breastfeeding and the risk of hospitalization for respiratory disease in infancy: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:237-43.