Clinical profile and outcome of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children aged between 2 months to 5 years


  • Alok Kumar M. K. Department of Pediatrics, Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, B.G. Nagara, Mandya, Karnataka, India
  • Ashok V. Badakali Department of Pediatrics, S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
  • Gangadhar Mirji Department of Pediatrics, S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
  • Raghavendra N. Vanaki Department of Pediatrics, S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
  • Ramesh Pol Department of Pediatrics, S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India



ALRTI, ARI, Outcome, Pneumonia, Risk factors, WHO


Background: Acute respiratory infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under five children in developing countries. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the clinical profile and factors predicting the outcome.

Methods: Hospital based case series study conducted at HSK hospital & Research centre. The study conducted from 01 March 2014 to 31 August 2015. 200 ALRI cases in the age group of 2 months to 5 years as per WHO criteria for pneumonia fulfilling the study criteria were evaluated for clinical profile and outcome as per predesigned proforma. Data collected was analyzed using chi square test.

Results: We found higher incidence of ALRTI cases among infants (53.5%) and male (58%) children. Majority had PEM (60.5%) and anemia (73.5%). Parental smoking, period of EBF and gestation at delivery were significantly associated with severity of pneumonia (p <0.05). 1.5%, 77.5% and 21% had pneumonia, severe and very severe pneumonia with mean duration of hospital stay of 5, 7.43 and 10.36 days. Need of change in antibiotics and duration of stay were significantly associated with pneumonia severity (p <0.05). 56.5% cases required oxygen and 4.5% required mechanical ventilation. Bronchopneumonia (33.5%) was the most common diagnosis and sepsis (6%) was the most frequent complication. Mortality was 3%.

Conclusions: Present study has identified prevalence of various risk factors among ALRI cases and predictors of severity and outcome. ARI burden and severity can be reduced by promoting EBF and immunization, effective management of malnutrition, improving the living standards and educating parents about hazards of smoking.  


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