DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20172023

Aetiological factors and clinical profile of neonatal jaundice from a rural area of North Kerala, India

Shemeena Valiyat, Harsha T. Valoor, Sayujya Radhamadhavan, Salina Sasi Vayalil

Abstract


Background: Neonatal jaundice is the most common problem in the first week of life leading to delayed hospital discharge and readmissions. Early recognition of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is important to prevent serious complications. This study was done in a teaching hospital (KMCT Medical College, Mukkam, Kozhikode), in a rural area of North Kerala. It is an attempt to identify the common aetiological factors of neonatal jaundice in this setting.

Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of 6 months from January 2014 to June 2014. A total of 110 jaundiced neonates were enrolled. Data collection was done by history taking, clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations.

Results: In this study, out of 110 jaundiced neonates, 102 (92.5%) were term babies and 8 (7.3%) were preterm, 69 (62.75%) were males and 41 (37.27%) females. Physiological jaundice was seen in 44 (40%) of neonates. Various other aetiologies were ABO incompatibility 24 (21.8%), sepsis 11 (10%), Rh incompatibility 9 (8%), idiopathic 9 (8%), prematurity 8 (7.3%), cephalhematoma 7 (6.4%), breast feeding jaundice 7 (6.4%) and haemolytic anaemia 1 (0.9%).

Conclusions: Physiological jaundice accounted for the bulk of cases of neonatal jaundice in our area. This was followed by ABO incompatibility. This highlights the importance of appropriate monitoring of neonates with this underlying risk factor. 


Keywords


ABO incompatibility, Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Physiological jaundice, Rh incompatibility

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barbara JS, Kliegman RM. Jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman HB, Jenson HB, editors. Nelson textbook of paediatrics, 17th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. 2004:592-8.

Bhutani VK, Zipursky A, Blencowe H, Khanna R, Sgro M, Ebbesen F, et al. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and Rhesus disease of the newborn: incidence and impairment estimates for 2010 at regional and global levels. Pediatr Res. 2013;74(1):86-100.

Mwaniki MK, Atieno M, Lawn JE, Newton CRJC. Long-termneurodevelopmental outcomes after intrauterine and neonatal insults: A Systematic review. Lancet. 2012;379:445-52.

Ipek IO, Bozayakut A Clinically significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: an analysis of 546 cases in Istanbul. J. Trop. Pediatr. 2008. 54:212-3.

Olusanya BO, Osibanjo FB, Slusher TM. Risk factors for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review and Meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10.

Devi GVR, Bhuvaneswari M, Prasad GSR. Clinical Profile and Outcome of Term and Preterm Newborns with Hyperbilirubinemia Admitted In SNCU of A Teaching Hospital”. J. Evid. Based Med. Healthc. 2015;2(14):2089-95.

Kulkarni SK, Dolas AL, Doibale MK. Profile and causes of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia in a tertiary care centre. Int J Basic Appl Med Sci. 2013;3:110-5.

Bhutani VK. Evidence based issues regarding neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Paediatrics review 2005;114:130-53.

Singhal PK, Singh M, Paul VK, Deorari AK, Ghorpade MG. Spectrum of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: An analysis of 454 cases. Indian Pediatr 1992;29:319-25.

Effiong CE. Neonatal jaundice in Ibadan. Incidence and etiologic factors born in hospital, Nigeria. Journal of National Medical Association 1975;67(3):208-10.

Narang A, Ghatwala G, Kumar P. Neonatal jaundice, an analysis of 551 cases. Indian paediatrics. 1996;34:429-32.

Korejo H. Risk factors for kernicterus in neonatal jaundice, Karachi, Pakistan. GJMS. 2010;8:1.

Bahl L, Sharma R, Sharma J.Aetiology of neonatal jaundice at Shimla. Indian paediatrics. 1994; 31:1275-8.

Merchant RH, Merchant SM, Babar ST. A study of 75 cases of neonatal jaundice. Indian Pediatr. 1975, 12:889-93.

Manorama V, Chatwal J, Singh D. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Indian J Paediatr. 1988;55:899-904.

Bajpai PC, Mishra PK, Agarwal M. An aetiological study of neonatal hyperbilirbinemia. Indian J Pediatr. 1971; 38:424-9.

Moerschel SK, Cianciaruso LB, Tracy LR. A practical approach to neonatal jaundice. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:1255-62.

Khattak ID, Khan TM, Khan P, Shah SMA, Khattak ST, Ali A. Frequency of ABO and rhesus blood groups in district Swat, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll. 2008;20:127-9.