DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20172684

Prevalence of metabolic comorbidities in obese children

Ambili Susan Jacob, Reetha G.

Abstract


Background: Obesity has been defined as an excess of body weight due to chronic caloric imbalance with more calories consumed than expended each day. Objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic co morbidities in obese children in our local population

Methods: Hospital based cross-sectional study conducted in the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary care hospital for a period of 1 year. Obese children attending the clinic during the study period were included. Their clinical and metabolic parameters including hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes and thyroid status were evaluated.

Results: A total of 65 children were included in the final analysis. Dyslipidemia was seen in 63% of the study subjects with high LDL cholesterol being the most frequent lipid abnormality.

Conclusions: The prevalence of dyslipidemia among obese children in our population was similar to that in other parts of the country, though we got a higher prevalence of LDL cholesterol. 


Keywords


Dyslipidemia, LDL cholesterol, Metabolic co morbidities, Prevalence

Full Text:

PDF

References


O'Donohue W, Benuto L, Woodward Tolle L. Handbook of adolescent health psychology. 1st ed. New York, N.Y: Springer; 2013.

Chu NF, Rimm EB, Wang DJ, Liou HS, Shieh SM. Clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among obese schoolchildren: the Taipei Children Heart Study. Am J Clini Nutr. 1998;67(6):1141-6.

Ellulu M, Abed Y, Rahmat A, Ranneh Y, Ali F. Epidemiology of obesity in developing countries: challenges and prevention. Global Epidemic Obesity. 2014;2(1):2.

Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1650-6.

Lauer RM, Lee J, Clarke WR. Factors affecting the relationship between childhood and adult cholesterol levels: the Muscatine Study. Pediatrics. 1988;82:309-18.

Raitakari OT, Juonala M, Viikari JS. Obesity in childhood and vascular changesin adulthood: insights into the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study. Int J Obes. 2005;29(Suppl 2):S101-4.

Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006;1(1):11-25.

Bradford NF. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Prim Care. 2009;36(2):319-39.

I’Allemand D, Wiegand S, Reinehr T, Müller J, Wabitsch M, Widhalm K, et al. Cardiovascular risk in 26,008 European overweight children as established by a multicenter database. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1672-9.

Musso C, Graffigna M, Soutelo J, Honfi M, Ledesma L, Miksztowicz V, et al. Cardiometabolic risk factors as apolipoprotein B, triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio and C-reactive protein, in adolescents with and without obesity: Cross-sectional study in middle class suburban children. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011;12:229-34.

DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E. Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care. 1991;14:173-94.

Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, Gidding SS, Hayman LL, Kumanyika S et al. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation. 2005;111:1999-2012.

Raj M. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(1):13-19.

Bhatia V. IAP National task force for childhood prevention of adult diseases. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in childhood. Indian Pediatr. 2004;41:443-57.

Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Latha E, Vijay V, Viswanathan M. Rising prevalence of NIDDM in urban population in India. Diabetologia. 1997;l40:232-7.

Prasad AN. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Young: Need for Early Screening. Indian Pediatr. 2011;48:683-8.

Bhave S, Bavdekar A, Otiv M. IAP National Task force for childhood prevention of adult diseases: childhood obesity. Indian Pediatr 2004;41:559-575

Khadilkar V,Yadav S, Agrawal K K, Tamboli S,Banerjee M, Cherian A et al. Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to 18- year old Indian children. Indian Pediatr 2015:52(1):47-55

Khadilkar A, Ekbote V, Chiplonkar S, Khadilkar V, Kajale N, Kulkarni S, et al. Waist circumference percentiles in 2-18 year old Indian children. J Pediatr. 2014;164(6):1358-1362.e2

Lurbe E, Agabiti-Rosei E, Cruickshank KJ, Dominiczak A, Erdine S, Hirth A et al. European Society of hypertension guidelines for the management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. J Hypertens. 2016,34:000-00.

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Suppl. 1):S81-S90

August GP, Caprio S, Fennoy I, Freemark M, Kaufman FR, Robert H et al. Prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline based on expert opinion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):4576-99.

Daniels SR. Screening and treatment of dyslipidemias in children and adolescents. Horm Res Paediatr. 2011;76(Suppl 1):47-51.

Hashemipour M, Soghrati M, Malek Ahmadi M, Soghrati M. Anthropometric indices associated with dyslipidemia in obese children and adolescents: a retrospective study in isfahan. ARYA Atheroscler. 2011;7:31-39.

Elmaoğulları S, Tepe D, Uçaktürk SA, Karaca Kara F, Demirel F. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Associated Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents. J Clini Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2015;7(3):228-234.

Korsten-Reck U, Kromeyer-Hauschild K, Korsten K, Baumstark MW, Dickhuth H-H, Berg A. Frequency of secondary dyslipidemia in obese children. Vascular Health Risk Managem. 2008;4(5):1089-94.

Minakshi B, Chithambaram N S. Abnormalities of lipid profile in overweight and obese Indian children. Int J Pediatr Res. 2016;3(8):584-8.

Nijaguna N, Vani HN, Niranjan HS, Suresh TN, Sanjeeva GN. Study of lipid profile and prevalence of dyslipidemia in adolescent school children from karnataka. Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2015;5(1):79-85.

Li J, Motsko SP, Goehring EL Jr, Tave A, Pezzullo JC, Jones JK. Prevalence of pediatric dyslipidemia: comparison of a population-based claims database to national surveys. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010;19(10):1031-40.

Li C, Ford ES, McGuire LC, Mokdad AH, Little RR, Reaven GM. Trends in hyperinsulinemia among nondiabetic adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29:2396-402.

Jin YY, Liang L, Fu JF, Wang XM. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in children. Zhongguo Dang Dai ErKeZaZhi. 2011;13:138-40.

I’Allemand D, Wiegand S, Reinehr T, Müller J, Wabitsch M, Widhalm K, et al. Cardiovascular risk in 26,008 European overweight children as established by a multicenter database. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1672-9.

Raj M, Sundaram KR, Paul M, Deepa AS, Kumar RK. Obesity in Indian children: Time trends and relationship with hypertension. Natl Med J India. 2007;20:288-93.

Stichel H, l’Allemand D, Grüters A. Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents. Horm Res. 2000;54:14-19.

Longhi S, Radetti G. Thyroid function and obesity. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013;5(Suppl 1):40-4.

Shalitin S, Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Phillip M, Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Obese Children and Adolescents before and after Weight Reduction and Its Relation to Other Metabolic Parameters. Horm Res. 2009;71:155-161.

Prasad DS, Kabir Z, Dash AK, Das BC. Abdominal obesity, an independent cardiovascular risk factor in Indian subcontinent: A clinico epidemiological evidence summary. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2011;2(4):199-205.