DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20171732

Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance test and diabetes in overweight, obese and apparently healthy school going adolescents

Kirti Choudhary, Priyanshu Mathur, Manisha Garg, P. P. Gupta

Abstract


Background: Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. It occupies a crucial position in the life of human beings characterized by an exceptionally rapid rate of growth in physical, mental, sexual, and psychological behavior etc. The present study was planned to study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance amongst overweight, obese and apparently healthy school going adolescents in the city of Jaipur, Rajasthan.

Methods: The study has been conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Mahatma Gandhi Medical College of Mahatma Gandhi University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Jaipur. The study was a cross sectional analytical study conducted in schools of Jaipur. This study was done from August 2011 to November 2011 and 180 patients of aged between 10 to 18 years of age were enrolled.

Results: In this study, it was found that the prevalence of overweight to be 32.65 percent in males and 34.15 percent in females. It was seen that 33.67 percent males and 32.93 percent females belonged to the obese category. Out of 180 adolescents, 25 (13.89 percent) were found to have IGT and only 1 was found to have type 2 diabetes (0.5 percent). Out of 25 students with IGT, 15 were boys and 10 were girls. Among these 25 students with IGT, 9 were overweight and 16 were obese. 15 percent of overweight student and approximately 26 percent of obese students had IGT. The association of IGT and increased BMI was found to be highly significant.

Conclusions: The present study highlights the fact that type 2 diabetes in children occurs in developing counties and there is an increase need to look for type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese children and adolescents in India. Therefore, it is recommended that all obese and overweight adolescents should be screened at least yearly for type 2 diabetes mellitus using OGTT so that timely intervention can be done.


Keywords


Diabetes, Impaired glucose tolerance test, Obesity, Overweight

Full Text:

PDF

References


Tanner JM. Fetus into Man: Physical Growth from Conception to Maturity, New York, Wells, Open Book Publishing Limited; 1978:22-36.

Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee Recommendation. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatr 1998; 102: E29.

Li X, Li S, Ulusoy E, Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Berenzon GS. Childhood adiposity as a predictor of cardiac mass in adulthood: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation. 2004;110:3488-92.

Nanda K. NASH in children. Pediatr Transplant. 2004;8:613-8.

Moore PA, Zgibor JC, Dasanayak AP. Diabetes: a growing epidemic of all ages. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134:115-55.

Ramachandra A. Diabetes and Obesity.The Indian Angle. India J Med Res. 2004;120:437-9.

Narayanappa D, Rajani HS, Mahendrappa KB, Prabhakar AK. Prevalence of Prediabetes in school-going children. Indian Pediatr. 2011;48:295-9.

Kaur S, Kapil U. Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes Mellitus in Obese Children. Indian Pediatr. 2010;47:362-3.

Singh M. Pediatric clinical methods. 4th ed; 2011:21-40.

WHO and IDF. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes and its complications. World health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland. 1999.

Kapil U, Singh P, Pathak P, Dwivedi SN. Prevalence of obesity amongst affluent adolescent school children. Indian Pediatr. 2001;39:449-52.

Chatwal J, Verma M, Riar SK. Obesity among preadolescent and adolescent of developing country (India). Aisa Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13:231-5.

Laxamaiah A, Nagalla B. Vijayaraghavan K, Nair M. Factors affecting prevalence of overweight among 12 to 17 year old urban adolescents in Hyderabad, India. Obesity. 2007;15:1384-90.

Asha Bai PV, Krishanswami CV, Chellamarippan. M, Vijaikumar G, Subramanian JR, Srivatsa A. Prevalence of diabetes in south India. Indian pediatr. 1995;32:1173-6.

Wiegand S, Mailowski U, Blankenstein O, Biebermann H, Tarnow P, Gruters A. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in European children and adolescent with obesity - a problem that is no longer restricted to minority groups. European J Endocrinol. 2004;151:199-206.

Tresaco B, Bueno G, Moreno LA, Garagorri JM, Bueno M. Insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents. Phys. Biochem. 2003;59:217-313.

Wabitsch M. Type-II diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in Obes. Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:307-13.

Wabitsch, M. Body fat distribution and change in the atherogenic risk factor profile in obese adolescent girls during weight reduction. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;19:279-83.

Braun B, Zimmerman M, Kretchmer N, Spargo R. Smith R, Gracey M. Risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in young Australian Aborigines. Diab Care. 1996;19:472-9.

Mazicioglu MM, Hatipoglu N, Ozturk A. Waist circumference and MU AC in evaluation of obesity in children aged between 6 to 17 years. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2010;2(4):144-50.

Subramanayam V, Bhave YS. Non-endocrine obesity and its office management. Bhave’s Textbook of Adolescent Medicine; 2006:151-9. Source: www.whoqlibdoc.who.int/pubication/2011

Sinha R, Fisch G, Teague B, William RN, Banyas B, Allen K et al. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescent with marked obesity. N Eng J Med. 2002;346:802-10.