A study on clinical profile of typhoid fever in children
Keywords:Children, Clinical profile, Coated tongue, Typhoid fever
Background: Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi. It is a major public health problem in India. Typhoid fever is endemic in many developing countries. Wide variations in the clinical manifestations of typhoid fever make its diagnosis a challenging task. This study was conducted to understand the wide range of clinical manifestations, complications and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of typhoid fever in children.
Methods:Prospectively, 113 children admitted in pediatric unit with confirmed Typhoid fever from September 2015 to December 2016 at KIMS hospital, Bangalore were included. In each case, age, sex, presenting complaint, laboratory investigations and antibiotic sensitivity pattern are collected and analysed.
Results: Out of 113 cases, 72 cases (63.8.1%) were males, 41 cases (36.2%) were females. The most common age group was 5-10 years. The most common symptom was fever, seen in 100% cases, followed by anorexia (61%), vomiting (44%) and abdominal pain (18%). The most common sign observed was toxic look in 68% of the cases, followed by coated tongue in 49% and hepatomegaly in 44%. Leucocytopenia was found in 34% of cases. Eosinopenia was found in 39% of cases. Anaemia was found in 16% of cases. Thrombocytopenia was found in 15% of cases. Blood culture was positive in 20% of cases. Use of municipal water for drinking was found in 65% of cases. Outside eating was found in 40% of cases. Unhygienic practices were found in 64% of cases. Duration of hospital stay varied from 3-10 days. No mortality reported.
Conclusions:Typhoid fever is most commonly observed with unhygienic practices and eating of unhealthy outside food. This major public health issue can be tackled by bringing awareness among people regarding disease transmission and its various preventive measures.
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