Cranial ultrasound in detection of neurological lesions in preterm neonates in a tertiary center in North Kerala, India

Kavya M. K., Radhamani K. V., Mahesh P.


Background: Incomplete formation and maturation of the central nervous system makes it extremely vulnerable to injury, in the case of premature neonates. This can result in a broad range of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Cranial ultrasound is a sensitive tool for the early detection of these. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of neurosonological abnormality in preterm infants. The aims of the study were to identify and enumerate the neurosonographic features, to assess the severity of brain injuries by grading the neurosonographic findings and to correlate the clinical presentations with the neurosonographic findings.

Methods: The present study was conducted in Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pariyaram Medical College. It consisted of all preterm neonates (less than 37 weeks of gestational age) referred to the Radiology department. The initial scan will be done as soon as possible (within 2 weeks of birth) followed by a repeat scan of the same infants at 36 weeks of corrected age, and at 8weeks post-partum.

Results: A total of 100 neonates with gestational age varying from 29 to 37 weeks were studied, with the birth weight varying from 1.5 to 1.9 kg. The most common abnormality found on neurosonogram was germinal-matrix haemorrhage, followed by periventricular leukomalacia.

Conclusions: Real time sonography is a sensitive non-invasive initial investigation for the detection of various brain lesions in the preterm neonates.


Cranial ultrasound, Germinal matrix haemorrhage, Neonates, Neurodevelopment, Preterm

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