Incidence of HIV, its predictors and risk factors in children


  • Alok Kumar Goyal Department of Pediatrics medicine, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Vijay Agrawal Department of Pediatrics medicine, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Karuna Thapar Department of Pediatric Medicine, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Ruchi Agrawal Department of Pathology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India



Human immunodeficiency syndrome, Predictors, Risk factors


Background: Children mostly acquire HIV (Human immunodeficiency syndrome) infection from their parents. There is need to know the HIV status of their parents, associated risk factors and predictors so as to make effective strategies to prevent this disease and save the coming/future generation from this deadly disease. The objective of the study was to know incidence of HIV, its predictors and risk factors in children. Study Setting: This is a Hospital based observation study conducted in Department of Pediatrics, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar.

Methods: In this study, all patients admitted to Pediatrics department, irrespective of presenting complaints were evaluated for presence of any of risk factors/predictors as mentioned in Proforma and those children having any of risk factors/predictors were selected, consent was taken and undergone detailed clinical evaluation and investigations for HIV.

Results: Incidence of HIV in all patients admitted to children ward was 1.21% (27/2227) and children who had one or more risk factor or predictor was 6.58% (27/410). Weight loss, Failure to thrive (44.44%), Diarrhoea (37.03%), Fever (70.37%), Oral Candidiasis (22.2%), Pulmonary Tuberculosis (11.11%) and Generalized Lymphadenopathy (18.51%) were significant predictors in present study. High risk behaviour of parents (37.30%) and mother's HIV positivity (62.92%) were significant high risk factors, however needle prick (18.5%) was also equally significant in present study.

Conclusions: Children brought with various signs and symptoms of HIV or born to high risk behaviour practicing parents and/or HIV positive mother, physician must get their patients tested for HIV (as per NACO Guidelines) so that infected children diagnosed early and referred to a specialized centre for treatment and follow up. 



HIV/AIDS Global and Regional Trends. Adults and Children estimated to be living with HIV as on end 2005. Available on. http:/

HIV/AIDS. Millennium Development Goal. Child affected by HIV/AIDS, The Challenge. Available on

Programme Implementation Guidelines for a phased scale up of Assess to Anteretroviral Therapy (ART) for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Introduction, Draft 20. Published by National AIDS Control Organization, New Delhi;2004: 4.

HIV Sentinal Surveillance and HIV estimation, 2006, New Delhi: National AIDS Control Organization: 2007. Available at on Dec. 19, 2007.

HIV Sentinal surveillance and HIV Estimation, 2005, New Delhi. National AIDS Control Organization; 2006.

Parthasarathy P, Mittal SK, Sharma VK. Prevalence of Pediatric HIV in New Delhi. Ind J Pediat. 2006; 73:205-7.

Media brief fact sheet, Why incidence is important. Human Science Research Council. Available on sheet-39.phtml.

Irashah. Epidemiology and Background. In: Management of Peditric HIV, 1st eds., Mumbai, Pediatric Oncall. 2005; 1.

Abul K, Abbas MD. Disease of immunity, immunologic deficiency syndromes. In: Abul K, Abbas MD, Fausto eds., Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease, 7th edn, Philadelphia, Elsvier. 2004:245-6.

Ram Y, Chadwick EC. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). In: Behrman, Kligman, Jenson eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th edn., Philadelphia, Elsevier; 2008: 1431.

Pensi T, Mathur YC, Bhave S. Clinical manifestations of HIV/AIDS in children. Manual for Management of HIV/AIDS in children. NACO. 2004;37-46.

Agrawal M, Koppikar GV, Ghildiyal R, Chavarkar M, Joshi SM, Lahiri KR. Seropositivity Rate for HIV infection in Hospitilized children on Selective Screening. Ind J Pediatr. 2001;38:267-71.

Adrien M, Boulos R, Louis A, Joseph F, Kissinger P, Halsey N. HIV-1 in Hospitalized Haitian pediatric and adult patients. International conference on AIDS. Available at http:// Abstracts. Accessed on Nov.14,2008.

Lodha R, Upadhyay A; Kapoor V, Kabra SK. Clinical profile and natural history of children with HIV infection. Ind J Pediatr. 2006;73:201-4.

Sehgal R, Baveja UK, Chattopadhya D, Chandra J and Lal S. Pediatric HIV infection. Ind J Pediatr. 2005;72:11.

Pol R, Shepur T, Ratageri V. Clinico-laboratory profile of HIV in Karnataka. Ind J Pediatr. 2007;74: 1071-5.

Shah SR, Tullu MS, Kamat JR. Clinical profile of pediatric HIV infection from India. Arch Medic Res. 2005;36(1):24-31.

Myhre JA, Chadwick EG, Yogev R. Failure to thrive in HIV-infected children: incidence, prevalence, and clinical correlates. Pediatric AIDS and HIV infection. 1996;7(2):83-90.

Nkrumah R, FK C, RG E. Clinical presentation of symptomatic human immuno-deficiency virus in children. Central Af J Medic. 1990;36(5):116-20.

Spira R, Lepage P, Msellati P, Van de Perre P, Leroy V, Simonon A, et al. Natural history of human immunodefiency virus type 1 infection in children: a five-year prospective study in Rwanda. Pediatr. 1999;104(5):56.

Prazuck T, Tall F, Macro B, Rochereau A, Traore A, Sanou T, et al. HIV infection and severe malnutrition: a clinical and epidemiological study in Burkina Faso. Aids. 1993;7(1):103-8.

Kouakoussui A, Fassinou P, Anaky MF, Elenga N, Laguide R, Wemin ML, et al. Respiratory manifestations in HIV-infected children pre-and post-HAART in Abidjan, the Ivory Coast. Paediatr Respiratory Rev. 2004;5(4):311-5.

Bhattacharyya S. Papular prurific eruption (PPE)- marker of progressive HIV disease in children- experience from Eastern India; 2008.

Grant HW. Patterns of presentation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children to the paediatric surgeon. Journal Pediatr Surg. 1999;34(2):251-4.

Fallo AA, Dobrzanski-Nisiewicz W, Sordelli N, Cattaneo MA, Scott G, López EL. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Int J Infect Diseases. 2002;6(1):9-16.

Adejuyigbe EA, Oyelami O, Onayami O, Durosinmi MA. Paediatric HIV/AIDS in lle-lfe, Nigeria. Med J Cent Afri. 2003;49(7-8):74-8.

Zhuang K, Gui XE, Luo JL, Wang XR, Su B, Zhang YX. A survey of children with HIV/AIDS in highly epidemic villages of AIDS. Zhonghua er ke za zhi= Chinese J Pediatr. 2003;41(8):586-9.

Martinez-Adgulilar G, Vasquez-De Kartzow R, Nava-frias M, Santos-Preciado JI. HIV infection in Mexican Children. Salud Publica Mex. 1995 Nov-Dec;37(6):572-80.

Al Hajjar SH. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in Saudi Arabian children: transmission, clinical manifestations and outcome. Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26(2):92-9.






Original Research Articles