DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20171488

Immunization knowledge, attitude and practice among mothers of children from 0 to 5 years

Dharmalingam A., N.S. Raghupathy, M. Sowmiya, D. Amudharaj, H. M. Jehangir

Abstract


Background: Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective child survival interventions which is practiced throughout the world. All countries in the world have an immunization programme to deliver selected vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries, specially focusing on pregnant women, infants and children, who are at a high risk of diseases preventable by vaccines. In India, six vaccines for preventable diseases (VPD) to reduce childhood mortality & morbidity ie. BCG, DPT, OPV, TT was coming into practice in 1978, after WHO immunization programme that was launched in 1974. The purpose of this study was to determine the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of mothers regarding their understanding of immunization in rural areas in and around Pondicherry through the questionnaire is prepared in English and Tamil.

Methods: Five hundred and one mothers of children from 0 to 5 years of age were included in the study. Questionnaire was carried out in mothers to assess the following parameters; The age of the mother, educational status, socioeconomic status, awareness and knowledge of immunization in previous siblings, knowledge about newer vaccines.

Results: Out of 501 mothers included in the study, the mean age of the mother whose child undergoing vaccination is 25.88+4 years. The predominant mothers have completed higher education and mean annual income was 86,682.00. Birth order of the child showed no significance. Majority of children (62.6%) included in the study were born at Aarupadai Veedu Medical College and Hospital. The results were analyzed through chi square test and they were significant for role of education (p value = 0.000), effect on maternal age (p value = 0.000) and not significant with birth order. Finally, correlating the effect of Delivery Place on antenatal vaccine awareness, Children who were born at ACMCH, showed higher significance rate in the knowledge of Antenatal Vaccine (p value = 0.000), proper dosage to be given (p value = 0.034), primary vaccination (p value = 0.000). Also, they were not aware of special vaccination (p value = 0.025) and the risk of not immunizing their children (p value = 0.016).

Conclusions: Vaccination is the cost-effective preventive intervention carried out by the government to completely eliminate the preventable diseases by vaccines. There is a 100% immunization coverage up to 18 months were recorded for children born at our hospital. This is because of the incentive schemes practiced at our institute. The knowledge and awareness of antenatal vaccination is approximately 70-80 % of the mother’s. Over all 30% of mothers are not aware that immunization can be done during minor ailments and after minor adverse reactions. Health professionals play a major role in creating both Immunization awareness and administration in prescribed date to mothers. In spite of awareness through various sources, knowledge on special vaccination to mothers is yet very poor. Initiative programme has to be taken to overcome this.


Keywords


Awareness, Children, Immunization, Mothers, Newer vaccines

Full Text:

PDF

References


Jose J, Lobo MR, Nisha K, Shilpa GS, Umarani J. Awareness on Immunization among Mothers of Underfive Children. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2013;2:620-7.

Textbook of Essential Pediatrics by OP Ghai. 8th Edition; 2013.

IAP Guide book on Immunization. © Indian Academy of Pediatrics; 2014.

Immunization Handbook for Medical officers; Dept. of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India;2009.

Nath B, Singh JV, Awasthi S, Bhushan V, Kumar V, Singh SK. KAP Study on Immunization of Children in a City of North India - A 30 Cluster Survey. Online J Health Allied Scs. 2008:7(1):2.

Singh MC, Badole CM, Singh MP. Immunization coverage and knowledge and practice of mothers regarding Immunization in Rural India. Indian J. Pub. Hlth. 1994;38:103-7.

Mathew JL. Inequity in childhood immunization in India: a systematic review. Indian Pediatr. 2012;49(3):203-23.

Mabrouka A. Knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of infants and preschool children at Al-Beida City, Libya 2008. Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;9(1):29-34.

Angelillo A, Ricciardi G, Rossi P. Mothers and vaccination: knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in Italy. World Health Organization 1999 Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1999;77(3).

Rahman M, Islam MA, Mahalanabis D. Mothers' Knowledge about Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Immunization Coverage of a Population with High Rate of Illiteracy. J Trop Pediatr. 1995;41(6):376-8.

Rachna K, Sheetal V. Awareness and knowledge of mothers of under five children regarding immunization in Ahmedabad. 2010;1(1):12-5.