Correlation of serum vitamin D levels and anemia in childhood pneumonia: a case control study from rural area

Suhas P. Kulkarni, Ashok A. Chougule


Background: Pneumonia remains number one cause for morbidity and mortality in children. Vitamin D has been shown to have immunomodulatory activity. Hence to find correlation between vitamin D and pneumonia cases the study was carried out.

Methods: A case control study was conducted at a rural hospital in Vadgaon. From September 2015 onwards all children under 5 years of age hospitalized with pneumonia were invited to participate in our study. Patients who consented for study underwent serum vitamin 25 (OH) D3 estimation along with other routine investigations as indicated. During the same study period, parents of otherwise healthy children fewer than 5 years age who came to our immunization clinic were invited to participate in the study as a control group.

Results: Vitamin 25(OH) D3 levels in pneumonia cases study group (N=40) 12.048±6.015 ng/ml (Mean±SD) and in control (N=35) 22.65±11.77 ng/ml (mean±SD) that is statistically significant (P<0.0001) and hemoglobin (Hb) in Cases (N=40) with 8.55±1.27 gm/dl (mean±SD); control group (N=19) with 10.31±0.9 gm/dl (mean±SD)levels was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.0001).All patients with severe pneumonia needing ICU management were found to be deficient in vitamin D levels. Children with pneumonia had higher level of anemia. All children admitted to ICU had Moderate to severe anemia.

Conclusions: There is a correlation between Vitamin D deficiency and severity of pneumonia and there is also correlation between level of anemia and severity of pneumonia.


Anemia, Lower respiratory tract infection, Pneumonia, Vitamin D deficiency

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