DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20171072

Prevalence and risk factors associated with depression among higher secondary school students residing in a boarding school of North Kerala, India

Urmila K. V., Usha K., Mohammed M. T. P., Kavitha Pavithran

Abstract


Background: Depression is very common among higher secondary school students. This study is to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in higher secondary school students in a boarding school of North Kerala; to identify associated risk factors; to compare the prevalence depression between those attending and not attending additional tuition class for competitive exams.

Methods: This cross sectional observational study was conducted among 130 students residing in a boarding school of North Kerala during the period 2014-2015. CES-DC scale was used to measure the prevalence of depression. All of them were reassessed after 1year of entering the school with the same scale.

Results: The prevalence of clinically significant depression was seen in 57.7% and the prevalence was more in those attending the tuition class (p=0.0068). Depression was more in girls and still higher in girls who attended the tuition classes (p=0.035). There was significant correlation between the prevalence of depression and stream of subjects selected (p =0.001), previous academic achievement (p= 0.01). The scores of depressions didn’t show any statistically significant difference after one year of stay in boarding school.

Conclusions: Severity of depression correlates with academic stress especially in boarding schools. Stress of competitive exams definitely more in higher secondary students and is one of the important cause for depression in them. Adolescents are not acquiring enough coping skills to overcome depression. Enhancing the coping strategies and the rescheduling of the educational system are the most important factors for prevention of these symptoms.


Keywords


Adolescent, Coping skills, Depression, Students

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen NB, Hetrick SE, Simmons JG, Hickie IB. Early intervention for depressive disorders in young people: the opportunity and the (lack of) evidence. Med J. 2007;187(7):S15-7.

Pillai A, Patel V, Cardozo P, Goodman R, Weiss HA, Andrew G. Non-traditional lifestyles and prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents in Goa, India. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2008;192(1):45-51.

Danesh E. The role of parenting style and parental depression in children. Applied Psychology. 2007;1(2):125-41.

Hyde JS, Mezulis AH, Abramson LY. The ABCs of depression: integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological review. 2008;115(2):291.

Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Worthman CM. Pubertal changes in hormone levels and depression in girls. Psychological medicine. 1999;29(05):1043-53.

El-Missiry A, Soltan M, Hadi MA, Sabry W. Screening for depression in a sample of Egyptian secondary school female students. Journal of affective disorders. 2012;136(1):61-8.

Weissman MM, Orvaschel H, Padian N. Children’s symptom and social functioning self‐report scales: Comparison of mothers’ and children’s reports. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders. 1980;168(12):736-40.

Faulstich ME, Carey MP, Ruggiero L. Assessment of depression in childhood and adolescence: An evaluation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). American Journal of Psychiatry. 1986;143(8):1024-27.

Mishra D, Singh HP. Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale- A revision. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70:273-74.

Fan HL, Gu H. Prevalence of depressive disorders in shanghai children aged 8-12 years. European Psychiatry. 2011;26(1):623.

Roberts RE, Roberts CR, Xing Y. Prevalence of youth-reported DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among African, European, and Mexican American adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006;30;45(11):1329-37.

Akande JA, Oloonirejuaro AO, Kalu CE. A Study of Level and Sources of Stress among Secondary School Students. IOSR Journal of Research and Method in Education. 2014;4(5):32-6.

Harrington R, Fudge H, Rutter M, Pickles A, Hill, J. Adult outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression: I. Psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1990;47:465-73.

Kessler RC, Avenevoli S, RiesMerikangas K. Mood disorders in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic perspective. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49:1002-14.

Ibrahim AK, Kelly SJ, Adams CE, Glazebrook CA. Systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students. Journal of psychiatric research. 2013;47(3):391-400.

Trivedi D, Dhakappa N, Ghildiyal P, Deekonda S, Subramaniam S, Iyer JS, et al. Depression among adolescent students in South India: How serious is the issue? Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;58(3):349.

Ariaratnam S, Musa R, AB E, Aye SS, AHH N, AS N. Pilot study on depression among secondary school students in Selangor. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 2007;62(3):218-22.

Mortazavi F. The prevalence of academic procrastination and its association with medical students’ well-being status. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN 2356-5926. 2016;3(2):1256-69.

Jayanthi P, Thirunavukarasu M, Rajkumar R. Academic stress and depression among adolescents: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Pediatrics. 2015;52(3):217-9.