The enigma of the simian crease: case series with the literature review

Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar

Abstract


Simian crease (SC), a single transverse crease that extends from across the palm of the hand. The presence of a single transverse palmar crease or the SC can be, but not always, a symptom associated with abnormal medical conditions. In dysmorphology, the clinical significance of variability of palmar creases especially SC are widely recognized and have occurred more frequently in patients with various congenital anomalies that are caused by genetic as well as environmental insults in the first half of pregnancy. SC has been studied extensively in children especially with Down’s syndrome (DS) where the incidence of SC is more than 63%. In this case report, two families are discussed with relevance to the presence of SC. The first family with two children with DS have no SC in any of them, whereas the second healthy family only the father who is a doctor by profession having an SC.


Keywords


Dysmorphology, Palmar creases, Simian crease, Downs syndrome

Full Text:

PDF

References


Caplan RM. How fingerprints came into use for personal identification. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23(1):109-14.

Alter M. Variation in palmar creases. Am J Dis Child. 1970;120(5):424-31.

Dar H, Schmidt R, Nitowsky HM. Palmar crease variants and their clinical significance: a study of newborns at risk. Pediatr Res. 1977;11(2):103-8.

Rignell A. Simian crease incidence and the correlation with thenar and hypothenar pattern types in Swedish patients with trisomy 21 (Down’s syndrome). Am J Phys Anthropol. 1987;72(3):277-86.

Rajangam S, Janakiram S, Thomas IM. Dermatoglyphics in Down’s syndrome. J Indian Med Assoc. 1995;93(1):10-3.

Reed T. Dermatoglyphics in medicine – Problems and use in suspected chromosome abnormalities. Am J Med Genet. 1981;8(4):411-29.

Mulvihill JJ, Smith DW. The genesis of dermatoglyphics. J Pediatr. 1969;75(4):579-89.

Kimura S, Kitagawa T. Embryological development of human palmar, plantar, and digital flexion creases. Anat Rec. 1986;216(2):191-7.

Kimura S. Embryologic development of flexion creases. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1991;27(2):113 29.

Popich GA, Smith DW. The genesis and significance of digital and palmar hand creases: preliminary report. J Pediatr. 1970;77(6):1017-23.

Sergovich F, Valentine GH, Chen AT, Kinch RA, Smout MS. Chromosome aberrations in 2159 consecutive newborn babies. N Engl J Med. 1969;280(16):851-5.

Preus M, Fraser FC. Dermatoglyphics and syndromes. Am J Dis Child. 1972;124:933-43.

Park JS, Shin DS, Jung W, Chung MS. Improved analysis of palm creases. Anat Cell Biol 2010;43(2):169-77.

Schaumann BA, Kimura S. Palmar, plantar, and digital flexion creases: morphologic and clinical considerations. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1991;27(2):229-52.

Achs R, Harper RG, Harrick NJ. Unusual dermatolyphics associated with major congenital malformations. N Engl J Med. 1966;275(23):

-8.

Forbes AP. Fingerprints and palm prints (dermatoglyphics) and palmar-flexion creases in gonadal dysgenesis, pseudohypoparathyroidism and klinefelter’s syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1964;270:1268-77.

Solomon L, Abrams G, Dinner M, Berman L. Neonatal abnormalities associated with D-penicillamine treatment during pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1977;296(1):54-5.

Achs R, Harper RG, Siegel M. Unusual dermatoglyphic findings associated with rubella embryopathy. N Engl J Med. 1966;274(3):148-50.

Dar H, Schmidt R. Topographic approach for analysis of palm crease variants. J Med Genet. 1976;13(4):310-3.

Bieseckerv LG, Aase JM, Clericuzio C, Gurrieri F, Temple IK, Toriello H. Defining morphology: hands and feet. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:1813.