The correlation of health spending and infant mortality rate in Asian countries

Anil Shetty, Shraddha Shetty

Abstract


Background: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is one of the most vital health indicators. A number of factors impact and influence IMR. One of the most important ones could be public health spending. Health spending however is not uniform throughout Asia and varies from region to region.  

Methods: Data obtained from the World Health Organization and World Bank Databases were used to assess the effect of state health spending on IMR. Factors such as per capita spending on health, proportion of GDP directed at health and private spending as a percentage of total health spending and their influence on IMR were also studied.  

Results: Data from 34 Asian countries was included in the study. Singapore (2) and South Korea (3) had the least IMR in the region. Afghanistan (71) had the highest IMR and also the least per capita governmental spending on health and Qatar the highest spending on health.

Conclusion: Per capita state spending on health was the most important determinant of IMR in our study and countries with higher per capita spending on health had significantly lower levels of IMR. 


Keywords


Health spending, Infant mortality rate, Health indicators

Full Text:

PDF

References


Franco A, Gil D, Alvarez-Dardet C. State size as measured in terms of public spending and world health, 1990-2000. Gac Sanit. 2005;19(3):186-92.

Bhalotra S. Spending to save? State health expenditure and infant mortality in India. Health Econ. 2007;16(9):911-28.

Shmueli A. Cost-effective outlays for better health outcomes. World Health Forum. 1995;16(3):287-92.

Farag M, Nandakumar AK, Wallack S, Hodgkin D, Gaumer G, Erbil C. Health expenditures, health outcomes and the role of good governance. Int J Health Care Finance Econ. 2013;13(1):33-52.

World Health Organization. Global health expenditure database, 2014. Available at: http://apps.who.int/nha/database/DataExplorerRegime.aspx. Accessed 30 July 2014.

The World Bank Indicators. Infant mortality rate for countries, 2014. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.IMRT.IN.

Marian F. MacDorman MF, Mathews TJ. Recent trends in infant mortality in the United States. NCHS Data Brief. 2008;9:1-8.

Lu C, Schneider MT, Gubbins P, Leach-Kemon K, Jamison D, Murray CJ. Public financing of health in developing countries: a cross-national systematic analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:1375-87.

Marchildon G. Canada: health system review. Health Syst Transit. 2013;15(1):1-179.

Rubayet S, Shahidullah M, Hossain A, Corbett E, Moran AC, Mannan I, et al. Newborn survival in Bangladesh: a decade of change and future implications. Health Policy Plan. 2012;3:40-56.

Pradhan YV, Upreti SR, Pratap KCN, Khadka N, Syed U, Kinney MV, et al. Newborn survival in Nepal: a decade of change and future implications. Health Policy Plan. 2012;3:57-71.

Zimba E, Kinney MV, Kachale F, Waltensperger KZ, Blencowe H, Colbourn T, et al. New-born survival in Malawi: a decade of change and future implications. Health Policy Plan. 2012 l;3:88-103.

Shawky S. Infant mortality in Arab countries: socio-demographic, perinatal and economic factors. East Mediterr Health J. 2001;7(6):956-65.

Filmer D, Pritchett L. The impact of public spending on health: does money matter? Soc Sci Med. 1999;49(10):1309-23.

Schell CO, Reilly M, Rosling H, Peterson S, Ekström AM. Socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality: a worldwide study of 152 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Scand J Publ Health. 2007;35(3):288-97.

Anand S, Bärnighausen T. Health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries: an econometric analysis. Lancet. 2007;369:1277-85.

Homaie Rad E, Vahedi S, Teimourizad A, Esmaeilzadeh F, Hadian M, Torabi Pour A. Comparison of the effects of public and private health expenditures on the health status: a panel data analysis in eastern Mediterranean countries. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2013;1(2):163-7.

Novignon J1, Olakojo SA, Nonvignon J. The effects of public and private health care expenditure on health status in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from panel data analysis. Health Econ Rev. 2012;2:22.

Quercioli C, Messina G, Basu S, McKee M, Nante N, Stuckler D. The effect of healthcare delivery privatisation on avoidable mortality: longitudinal cross-regional results from Italy, 1993-2003. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013;67(2):132-8.

Chatterjee A, Paily VP. Achieving millennium development goals 4 and 5 in India. BJOG. 2011;118(2):47-59.

Gani A. Health care financing and health outcomes in Pacific Island countries. Health Policy Plan. 2009;24(1):72-81.

Houweling TA, Caspar AE, Looman WN, Mackenbach JP. Determinants of under-5 mortality among the poor and the rich: a cross-national analysis of 43 developing countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(6):1257-65.

Heijink R, Koolman X, Westert GP. Spending more money, saving more lives? The relationship between avoidable mortality and healthcare spending in 14 countries. Eur J Health Econ. 2013;14(3):527-38.