Association of iron deficiency anemia with acute bronchiolitis in children below 2 years of age


  • Prodip Kumer Department of Paediatrics, Sir Salimullah Medical College Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • M. Abdur Rouf Department of Paediatrics, MH Samorita Hospital and Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Mohammad Moniruzzaman Bhuiyan Department of Paediatrics, Sir Salimullah Medical College Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • M. Abu Taleb SIBL Foundation Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Vikarun Nesa Department of Neonatology, Sir Salimullah Medical College Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh



Iron deficiency anemia, Acute bronchiolitis, Children


Background: Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of respiratory distress in small children and one of the main causes of hospitalization in children <2 years of age. Anemia is also identified as a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection. Iron deficiency is considered the most common cause of anemia in developing countries. As anemia is highly prevalent in children of our country, this study was undertaken to evaluate whether iron deficiency anemia is associated with acute bronchiolitis.

Method: This Cross-Sectional Analytical study was carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, Sir Salimullah Medical College Mitford Hospital (SSMCMH), Dhaka, during the period of December 2021 to November 2022 after obtaining ethical approval to explore the association between iron deficiency anemia and bronchiolitis. Hemoglobin level, RBC indices, TWBC count, serum iron, TIBC level, Transferrin saturation, and PBF were investigated and compared in all children with bronchiolitis and control. For this purpose, a total number of 71 patients were enrolled in the study and among them, 35 children with bronchiolitis were considered as cases, and 36 healthy children without bronchiolitis were considered as control, who were matched with age. After taking written informed consent from parents/legal guardians, a detailed history and thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations were carried out on each child. Data were recorded in separate case record form and analyzed by SPSS version 23.0.

Results: The mean age was found 12.1±6.7 months in cases and 14.1±6.9 months in controls. Male participants (47, 66.2%) were the predominant group in the study and female participants were (24, 33.8%). Exclusive breastfeeding was found in 10 (28.6%) cases and 25 (71.4%) controls. There was a statistically significant difference in Hb (gm/dl), MCV (fl), S.Iron (µg/dl), Transferrin Saturation (%) and RDW-CV (%) between cases and controls (p<0.05). Among 35 cases, 25 (67.6%) had Iron Deficiency Anemia and statistical difference between the case and control was significant (p=0.001) with an odds ratio of 5.0.

Conclusion: Iron deficiency anemia has a significant association with bronchiolitis. A larger and more extensive study was recommended.


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