Association of early life factors with metabolic syndrome in school going adolescents of an urban south Indian population: a case control study


  • Kiran Araballi Department of Paediatrics, KAHER’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
  • Meenakshi B. Ramanna Department of Paediatrics, KAHER’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
  • Roopa M. Bellad Department of Paediatrics, KAHER’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India



MS, Early life factors, Adolescents


Background: Multiple factors are attributed for the increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents. Association of early life factors like birth weight with adolescent MS is not clearly understood.  Objectives were to study the association of early life factors with adolescent MS between aged 10- 15 years of Belagavi city.

Methods: Study design: Case control Study. Study period: January 2018 to December 2018. Study population: Adolescents of age group, 10 to 15 years from the schools of Belagavi, 400 adolescents (186-cases and controls-214) were enrolled and who were having waist circumference ≥90th percentile for that age and gender were subjected to the laboratory investigations to diagnose MS. Data regarding early life factors like birth weight, gestational age and breast feeding was obtained by parental interview.

Results: Overall prevalence as per the international diabetes federation criteria was 11% and a significant difference in the prevalence between cases and controls (15.05% vs 7.48%) (p=0.0160) was observed. Positive association was observed between initiation, exclusivity, and total duration of breast feeding with MS (OD: 3.66, 2.01, 1), indicating no protection of these factors for development of MS. Birth weight had a positive association with MS (OD=7.26).

Conclusions: The study showed no protective association between the initiation, exclusivity and the total duration of breastfeeding with MS. However, lower middle SES, family history of hypertension (HTN), central obesity, high BMI, high TG, and low HDL were significantly associated with increased risk of MS.


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