Association of early life factors with metabolic syndrome in school going adolescents of an urban south Indian population: a case control study

Authors

  • Kiran Araballi Department of Paediatrics, KAHER’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
  • Meenakshi B. Ramanna Department of Paediatrics, KAHER’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
  • Roopa M. Bellad Department of Paediatrics, KAHER’s Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20233598

Keywords:

MS, Early life factors, Adolescents

Abstract

Background: Multiple factors are attributed for the increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents. Association of early life factors like birth weight with adolescent MS is not clearly understood.  Objectives were to study the association of early life factors with adolescent MS between aged 10- 15 years of Belagavi city.

Methods: Study design: Case control Study. Study period: January 2018 to December 2018. Study population: Adolescents of age group, 10 to 15 years from the schools of Belagavi, 400 adolescents (186-cases and controls-214) were enrolled and who were having waist circumference ≥90th percentile for that age and gender were subjected to the laboratory investigations to diagnose MS. Data regarding early life factors like birth weight, gestational age and breast feeding was obtained by parental interview.

Results: Overall prevalence as per the international diabetes federation criteria was 11% and a significant difference in the prevalence between cases and controls (15.05% vs 7.48%) (p=0.0160) was observed. Positive association was observed between initiation, exclusivity, and total duration of breast feeding with MS (OD: 3.66, 2.01, 1), indicating no protection of these factors for development of MS. Birth weight had a positive association with MS (OD=7.26).

Conclusions: The study showed no protective association between the initiation, exclusivity and the total duration of breastfeeding with MS. However, lower middle SES, family history of hypertension (HTN), central obesity, high BMI, high TG, and low HDL were significantly associated with increased risk of MS.

References

International Diabetes Federation. 2016. Criteria of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Available at: http://www.idf.org/metabolic-syndrome/children/criteria. Accessed on 25 June, 2023.

Agudelo GM, Bedoya GE, Alejandro E, Fredy AP, Angelica MM, Claudia MV. Variations in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents according to different criteria used for diagnosis: which definition should be chosen for this age group? Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2014;12(4):202-9.

Singh R, Bhansali A, Sialy R, Aggarwal A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a North Indian population. Diabetes Med. 2007;24:195-9.

Tandon N, Garg MK, Singh Y, Marwaha RK. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban Indian adolescents and its relation with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). J Pediatric Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26:1123-30.

Bhalavi V, Deshmukh PR, Goswami K, Garg N. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome in the adolescents of rural Wardha. Indian J Community Med. 2015;40:43-8.

Bhat R, Paray I, Zargar S, Ganie A, Khan I. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among North Indian adolescents using Adult Treatment Panel III and pediatric International Diabetic Federation definitions. Arch Med Health Sci. 2015;3:44.

Andrabi SM, Bhat MH, Andrabi SR, Kamili MM, Imran A, Nisar I et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 8-18-year-old school-going children of Srinagar city of Kashmir India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;17:95-100.

Singh N, Parihar RK, Saini G, Mohan SK, Sharma N, Razaq M et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;17:133-7.

Jiao W, Yanna Z, Li C, Jin J, Yajun C, Jincheng M et al Metabolic syndrome and its associated early life factors: a cross sectional study. Public Heal Nutr. 2015;19(7):1147-54.

Anmol G, Amit S, Narender M, Aakriti G, Neha S, Ravindra MP et.al. Prevalence of Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors among School Age Children of 10-16 Years Living in District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;22(3):373-8.

Efstathiou SP, Skeva II, Irini IS, Zorbala E, Mountokalakis TD. Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence Can It Be Predicted From Natal and Parental Profile? The Prediction of Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence (PREMA) Study. Circulation. 2012;125(7):902-10.

Kim K, Estela B, Raquel B, Marcela R, Marcela C, Betsy L et al. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher infancy gain and decreased with longer breast-feeding. Int J Pediatr. 2012;2012:478610.

González-Jiménez E, Montero-Alonso MA, Schmidt-Rio Valle J, García-García CJ, Padez C. Metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents and its association with birth weight, breastfeeding duration, maternal smoking, and maternal obesity: A cross-sectional study. Eur J Nutrit. 2015;54(4):589-97.

Hirschler V, Roque MI, Calcagno ML, Gonzalez C, Aranda C. Maternal waist circumference and the prediction of children’s metabolic syn- drome. Arch Pediatr Adolescent Med. 2007;161(12):1205-10.

Santiago AC, Cunha LP, Vieira NS, Moreira LM, Oliveira PR, Lyra PP et al. Breastfeeding in children born small for gestational age and future nutritional and metabolic outcomes: a systematic review. J Pediatr. 2019;95(3):264-74.

Burke V, Beilin LJ, Simmer K, Oddy WH, Blake KV, Doherty D et al. BMI and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Int J Obesity. 2005;29(1):15-23.

Jiao W, Javier SP, Jacqueline SRV, Yajun C, Jin J, Emilio GJ. Metabolic Syndrome and Its Associated Early-Life Factors among Chinese and Spanish Adolescents: A Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(7):1568.

Pacheco LS, Blanco E, Burrows R, Reyes M, Lozoff B, Gahagan S. Early Onset Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chilean Adolescents. Prev Chronic Dis. 2017;14:E93.

Zhenyu Y, Sandra LH. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries. Maternal Child Nutr. 2013;9(1)105-19.

Wang S, Liu Y, Zhan J, Liu X, Feng Q, Gong J, He Q. Determinants of metabolic syndrome in Chinese schoolchildren. Asia-Pacific J Publ Health. 2015;27(2):NP674-80.

Sen Y, Kandemir N, Alikasifoglu A, Gonc N, Ozon A. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: The role of the severity of obesity. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167(10):1183-9.

Martin RM, Patel R, Kramer MS, Vilchuck K, Bogdanovich N, Sergelchick N et al. Effects of promoting longer term and exclusive breastfeeding on cardiometabolic risk factors at age 11.5 years: A cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Circulation. 2016;129(3):321-9.

Izadi V, Kelishadi R, Qorbani M, Esmaeil M, Taslimi M, Heshmat R et al. Duration of breastfeeding and cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN III study. Nutrition. 2013;29(5):744-51.

Jamoussi H, Mahjoub F, Sallemi H, Berriche O, Ounaissa K, Amrouche C et al. Metabolic syndrome in Tunisian obese children and adolescents. La Tunisie Méd, 2012;90(1):36-40.

Folic N, Folic M, Markovic S, Marija A, Jankovic S. Risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. Serbian Arch Med. 2015;143(2-3):146-52.

Lauren W, Jean K, Claudia H, David T, Claire MZ. Breastfeeding and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. J Hum Lact. 2018;34(3):515-25.

Khadilkar A, Ekbote V, Chiplonkar S, Khadilkar V, Kajale N, Kulkarni S et al. Waist circumference percentiles in 2-18-year-old Indian children. J Pediatr. 2014;164(6):1358-62.

Cook S, Weitzman M, Auinger P, Nguyen M, Dietz Wh. Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Pediatr Adolescent Med. 2003;157(8):821-7.

Rodríguez-Moran M, Salazar-Vazquez B, Violante R, Guerrero-Romero F. Metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents aged 10-18 years. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(10):2516-7.

Kim HM, Park J, Kim HOS, Kim DH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents aged 12-19 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 and 2005. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;75(1):111-4.

Downloads

Published

2023-11-27

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles