Sleep pattern and sleep disorders in school-going children aged 6-12 years and its association with screen time: a cross-sectional study from South Kerala during the COVID-19 pandemic

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20231485

Keywords:

Screen time children, Sleep disorders, Sleep duration, COVID-19, CSHQ, Children

Abstract

Background: Poor sleep quality in school children can negatively impact their neurocognitive abilities and academic achievement. Increased screen time was shown to interfere with children’s sleep habits and disrupts their sleep pattern. This study aimed to understand the sleep patterns and sleep disorders in school children and the influence of screen time on sleep in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This cross-sectional observational school-based study was done on 443 children aged 6-12 years. Data was collected through parent filled online questionnaire having a proforma and child sleep habit questionnaire (CSHQ), a validated questionnaire to assess sleep disorders in children

Results: Out of 443 children studied, the average sleep duration of the study population was 9:06 hours ±42:18 min and, 34.3% of the children slept less than 9 hours per day. The prevalence of sleep disorders was found to be 76.52%. Significant screen time after 8 PM was observed in 65.9% and 62.2 % of children had a total screen time of more than 2 hours. Increased screen time after 8 PM, delayed bedtime and wake-up time in children and also contributed to sleep disorders. Bedtime resistance and daytime sleepiness were more commonly observed in children with increased screen time.

Conclusions: Sleep disorders in children are more predominant than sleep deprivation. Increased screen time before bed was found to alter sleep patterns in children and increases bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disorders.

References

Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA. Understanding adolescent's sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal. Sleep Med Rev. 2003;7(6):491-506.

Gruber R, Somerville G, Bergmame L, Fontil L, Paquin S. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Sleep Med. 2016;21:93-100.

Dewald JF, Meijer AM, Oort FJ, Kerkhof GA, Bögels SM. The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2010;14(3):179-89.

Matricciani L, Olds T, Petkov J. In search of lost sleep: secular trends in the sleep time of school aged children and adolescents. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16(3):203-11.

Potter GD, Skene DJ, Arendt J, Cade JE, Grant PJ, Hardie LJ. Circadian rhythm and sleep disruption: causes, metabolic consequences, and countermeasures. Endocrine Rev. 2016;37(6):584-608.

Trott M, Driscoll R, Irlado E, Pardhan S. Changes and correlates of screen time in adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. E-Clin Med. 2022;48:101452.

Runacres A, Mackintosh KA, Knight RL, Sheeran L, Thatcher R, Shelley J et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sedentary time and behaviour in children and adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environmental Res Pub Heal. 2021;18(21):11286.

Owens JA, Spirito A, McGuinn M. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): psychometric properties of a survey instrument for school-aged children. Sleep-New York. 2000;23(8):1043-52.

Suri JC, Sen MK, Adhikari T. Epidemiology of sleep disorders in schoolchildren of Delhi: a questionnaire-based study. Indian J Sleep Med. 2008;3(2).

Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Heal. 2015;1(1):40-3.

Mishra A, Pandey RK, Minz A, Arora V. Sleeping habits among school children and their effects on sleep pattern. J Caring Sci. 2017;6(4):315-23.

Bharti B, Malhi P, Kashyap S. Patterns and problems of sleep-in school going children. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43(1):35-8.

Mindell JA, Sadeh A, Kwon R, Goh DY. Cross-cultural differences in the sleep of preschool children. Sleep Med. 2013;14(12):1283-9.

Gupta R, Kandpal SD, Goel D, Mittal N, Dhyani M, Mittal M. Sleep patterns, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep among school children: Comparison of domicile and gender. Sleep Sci. 2016;9(3):192-7.

Barathy C, Prabha S. Study of sleep pattern in children aged 1-12 years attending OPD at tertiary care hospital, Puducherry, India. Int J Contemporary Pediatr. 2017;4(6):1980.

Thomas AA, Prasad V, Jayakumar C. Sleep disorders in adolescent school children in Kochi: a cross sectional study. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2021;8:1079-84.

Gupta P, Shah D, Bedi N, Galagali P, Dalwai S, Agrawal S et al. Indian Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines on Screen Time and Digital Wellness in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Indian Pediatr. 2022;59(3):235-44.

Li S, Jin X, Wu S, Jiang F, Yan C, Shen X. The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China. Sleep. 2007;30(3):361-7.

Cain N, Gradisar M. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Med. 2010;11:735-42.

Owens J, Maxim R, McGuinn M, Nobile C, Msall M, Alario A. Television-viewing habits and sleep disturbance in school children. Pediatrics. 1999;104(3):e27.

Dewald JF, Meijer AM, Oort FJ, Kerkhof GA, Bögels SM. The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2010;14(3):179-89.

Curcio G, Ferrara M, De Gennaro L. Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10(5):323-37.

Downloads

Published

2023-05-26

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles