DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20170685

Solid malignant pediatric tumors: a histopathological study

Neelu Gupta, Monika Choudhary, Sandeep Pachar, Jai Prakash Dhaka, Roshan Verma

Abstract


Background: In general, the features of malignancies in children differ biologically and histologically from those of adults with respect to incidence, type of tumor, underlying familial or genetic aberration and tendency to regress spontaneously or cytodifferentiation. In recent years, identification of specific genes, oncogenes, tumor markers and other biological and pathological factors have played an important role in staging and classifying risk categorization of specific tumors as low, intermediate and high-risk lesions.

Methods: This study is under taken to evaluate the incidence and morphological features of solid malignant tumors in children of fifteen years and below. The material for present study is obtained from S. P. Medical College, Bikaner and referred cases. The histopathology slides and paraffin blocks are reviewed.

Results: The sections 3-5 μ thick, are cut and stained by haematoxylin and eosin in all cases and special stains like PAS, MTS, RS done where ever feasible. An analysis of 60 cases of solid malignant tumors of childhood over a period of 5years are made. The early onset and the embryonal nature of the major pediatric tumors, suggest a prenatal origin and role of genetic factors. Infections, exposure to drugs and chemicals during pregnancy are other contributory factors.

Conclusions: Accurate incidence of data is important in the planning and evaluation of clinical trials. Documentation of cases, advanced diagnostic methods like IHC, cytogenetic studies and treatment modalities with close follow up is needed to achieve better statistical evaluation of the problem.


Keywords


Histopathology, Malignant, Pediatric, Solid

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baneerjee CK, Walia BNS. Pattern of neoplasms in childhood. Indian J Paediatr. 1986;53:93-7.

Atlman AJ, Schwartz AD. Malignant disease of infancy, childhood and adolescence. In Major Problems in Clinical Paediatrics. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 1978;18:1-102.

Dawani GP, Tandon PL, Ghooi AM, Jain PK. Malignant tumours of infancy and childhood. Indian J Surg. 1972;34;460-8.

Kumar V, Fausto N, Abbas A. Pathologic basis of disease, Elsevier; 7th edition; 2004.

Variend S. Small cell tumors in childhood a review. J Pathol. 1985;45:1-25.

Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF. Nelson Textbook of Paediatrics. 18th edition, WB Saunders; 2007.

Anderson WAD, Kissane JM. Pathology. 7th edition, Volume 1 and 2, C.V. Mosby co. sty. Louis; 1977.

Boyd WC. Textbook of Pathology: Structure and Function in Diseases. 9th edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia; 1979.

Cohn SL. Diagnosis and classification of the small round-cell tumors of childhood. Am J Pathol. 1999;155(1):11-4.

Lee CK, Lee SK. Malignant solid tumors of infancy and childhood in Korea. GANN Monograph on cancer research, University of Tokyo Press; 1976.

Miller RW, Young JL, Novakovic B. Childhood cancer. Cancer. 1994;75:395-405.

Jain KK, Mathur GP, Srivastava JR. Malignancy in childhood. A clinicopathological study of 45 cases. Ind J Paediatrics. 1975;42(326):61-6.

Jussawala DJ, Yeole BB. Childhood cancer in greater Bombay. 1973-84. Indian J Cancer. 1988;25:197-206.

Kusumakumary P, Jocob R, Jothirmayi R, Nair MK. Profile of paediatric malignancies: a ten year study. Indian Paediatr. 2000;37:1234-8.

Sharma S, Mishra K, Agarwal S, Khanna G. Solid tumors of childhood: Ind J Paediatrics. 2004;71(6):501-4.

Young G, Miller RW. Incidence of malignant tumors in US children. J Paediatr. 1975;86:254-8.

Pearson D, Stearward JK. Malignant tumors in juveniles. Proc R Soc Med. 1969;62:685-8.

Teppo S, Salonen J, Hatailinan T. Incidence of childhood cancer in Finland. J Ntl Canc Int. 1975;55:1065-7.

Venugopal KV, Joseph TP, Verma KK. Solid malignant tumor of infancy and childhood: a clinicopathological study. Ind Pediatr. 1981;18(6):365-8.

Monkodi RC, Mehata. The patteren of neoplasm in children. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1969;12:4-8.

Ramakumar L, Sood C, Divan SP. Childhood malignancies a statistical survey. Indian J Child Health. 1963;12:190-5.

Desai MP, Merchant SM. Lymphosarcoma in childhood. Indian Paediatr. 1949;7:507.

Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney JG, Linet M, Tamra T, Young JL et al. Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program. NIH Pub. No, Bethesda, MD; 1999:99-4649.

Sanyal B, Pant GC, Singhal GD, Tripathi VN, Ambasta SS, Gupta S, et al. Renal tumours- a review of 54 cases. Indian J Cancer. 1976;13(2):177-82.

Sharma S, Nath P, Srivastava AN, Singh KM. Wilms' tumour: a clinicopathologic study with special reference to its morphological variants. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1995;38(1):55-62.

Grundy PE, Breslow NE, Li S, Perlman E, Beckwith JB, Ritchey ML et al. Loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q is an adverse prognostic factor in favorable-histology Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(29):7312-12.

Sang DN, Albert DM. Retinoblastoma- clinical and histopathologic features. Hum Pathol. 1982;13(2):133-47.

Dhir SP, Jain IS, Dar GR, Gupta HD. Survival of retinoblastoma cases in North India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1980;28(2):97-100.

Marwaha RK, Choudary VP. Neuroblastoma in Indian children. Ind J Paediat. 1982;49:811-3.

Mangal N, Miglani N. Patteren of paediatric malignancies in Rajasthan. Ind Paediatr. 1991;28(6):673-5.