Published: 2022-10-27

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a rare case report in a post-COVID patient

Chetana M. Iyli, Rakesh A. Navale


Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), a rare disease in pediatrics, affecting one’s own immune system, is one of the causes for the acquired hemolytic anemia. For the past two years, the COVID-19 pandemic had emerged, evolved and manifested with a wide range of symptoms causing threat to human race.  In recent times, there have been literatures focused on AIHA manifesting, with novel SARS-CoV-2 infection, or as its late sequelae (secondary). The pathophysiology causing hemolysis in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains vague making it a very rare association with COVID-19. The acute symptoms of jaundice, giddiness, shortness of breath are noted, with investigations depicting hyper-inflammatory state as a most common etio-pathogenesis. This acute presentation, at times could be fatal and make the patient refractory to steroids.  There are complications due to COVID-19 infection like pneumonia, respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome etc.,known until lately where AIHA secondary to COVID-19, a very rare phenomenon is taking the spot light. A few cases of AIHA manifestation with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 have been reported and few cases which presented as a secondary infection. Here we are presenting an extremely rare case of a 16-year-old girl, with late onset anemia, post COVID-19 infection 4 weeks back.


AIHA, SARS-CoV-2 infection, Hemolysis, Inflammatory state

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