Pattern of congenital malformations in new-borns: a hospital based retrospective study
Keywords:Anomalies, Malformations, Neonatal, Antenatal, Congenital
Background: Congenital malformation in new-borns is a major public health problem. Identification of the pattern of congenital malformations and hence control of birth defects is an urgent need.
Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in neonatal care unit (NICU) of GMC and RH Patiala, Punjab. All the deliveries conducted from January 2020 to December 2020 were included in the study. All the new born babies were thoroughly examined for the presence of congenital malformations. Detailed maternal history was recorded so as to evaluate association of various maternal risk factors with the congenital malformations. Collected data was analyzed on statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software, a p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: A total of 3962 babies were delivered at GMC and Rajindra Hospital, Patiala during the study period. Out of this, 91 (2.29%) new-borns were identified with congenital malformations. The most common system involved was musculoskeletal 40 (43.9%) followed by central nervous system 24 (26.4%). Among maternal and fetal risk factors; parental consanguinity, maternal under nutrition/obesity, positive history of a congenital anomaly (CA) in the family, and still birth/intrauterine deaths and ambiguous sex of the newborn baby were significantly associated with higher frequency of CAs (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Congenital malformations in new-borns becoming the emerging cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality after neonatal infections. Institution of preventive measures with more focus on young mother’s nutrition, provision of health education and early diagnosis of congenital malformations during antenatal period can help to curb the burden of this problem.
World Health Organization. Birth defects. Executive Board, 126th session, provisional agenda, December 2009. Available at: http://apps.who.int/ gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB1 26/B126_10-en.pdf. Accessed on 24 March 2022.
Lawn JE, Cousin S, Zupan J. Lancet neonatal Survival Steering team 4 million Neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why? Lancet. 2005;365:891-900.
Arnold S, Christopher PH, Bernadetti M. Global report on birth defects: New York: Birth defects foundation. 2006.
Rajangam S. Consanguinity and chromosomal abnormality in mental Retardation and or multiple congenital anomalies. J Anatomical Soc India. 2007;56:30-3.
Temtamy SA. A genetic epidemiological study of malformations at birth in Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health J. 1998;4:252-9.
Reich JD. Clinical screening for congenital heart diseases at birth –A long way to go. Indian Pediatrics. 2011;48:17-8.
Jahangir W, Ali F, Jahangir T, Masood MS. Prevalence of gross congenital malformations at birth in the neonates in a tertiary care hospital. APMC. 2009;3:47-50.
Marwah S, Sharma S, Kaur H, Gupta M, Goraya SPS. Surveillance of congenital Malformations and their possible risk factors in a teaching hospital in Punjab. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2014;3162-7.
Mohanty C, Mishra OP, Das BK, Bhatia BD, Singh G, et al. Congenital malformation in newborn: A study of 10,874 consecutive births. J Anat Soc India. 1989;38:101-11.
Mathur BC, Karan S, Vijaya Devi KK. Congenital malformations in the newborn. Indian Pediatr. 1975;12:179-83.
Suguna Bai NS, Mascarene M. An etiological study of congenital malformation in the newborn. Indian Pediatr. 1982;19:1003-7.
Paul VK, Bagga A. Ghai Essential Pediatrics Book (Ninth Edition). CBS Publishers. 2019;125-6.
Paul VK, Bagga A. Assessment of Size and Growth. Ghai Essential Pediatrics Book (Ninth Edition). CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. 2019.
WHO Growth charts. Available at: https:// www.who.int/tools/child-growth-standards/ standards. Accessed on 15 March 2022.
Pattern of congenital anomalies in newborn: a hospital-based study
El Koumi MA, Al Banna EA, Lebda I. Pattern of congenital anomalies in newborn: a hospital-based study. Pediatr Rep. 2013;5:e5.
Swain S, Agrawal A, Bhatia BD. Congenital malformations at birth. Indian Pediatr. 1994;31:1187-91.
Francine R, Salameh P, Aline H. Congenital anomalies: Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies in Neonates and Associated Risk factors. J Public Health. 2014;2(2):58-63.
Sridhar K. A community based study of visible congenital anomalies in rural Tamil Nadu. Indian J Plastic Surg. 2009;42:184-91.
Levi S, Hyjazi Y, Schaapst JP, Defoort P, Coulon R, Buckens P. Sensitivity and Specificity of routine antenatal screening for congenital anomalies by ultrasound: the Belgian Multicentric Study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1991;1:102-10.
Crane J, LeFevre ML, Winborn RC, Evans JK, Ewigman BG, Bain RP, et al. A Randomized trial of prenatal ultrasonographic screening: impact on the detection, management and outcome of anomalous foetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;171:392-9.
Luck CA. Value of routine ultrasound scanning at 19 weeks: a four year study of 8849 deliveries. BMJ. 1992;304:1474-8.