DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20220769
Published: 2022-03-24

Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an infant: a case report

Nehal Singhal, Rajendra Nagar, Gautam Nagori

Abstract


Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare non-malignant disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of pathological cells with the characteristics of Langerhans cells in single or multiple sites. A 7-month-old infant presented with continued fever and recurrent cough with progressive rash over the whole-body including palms and soles for over a month. On examination there was respiratory distress, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and skin rash. The diagnostic workup for underlying causes showed ground glass opacity, pulmonary oedema and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy on CT scans of thorax and abdomen respectively. The histopathology specimens of skin and lymph node biopsy further confirmed the suspicion of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was sent for treatment with vinblastine and prednisone to a higher centre. In this case report we highlighted the unusual presentations and prognosis of a child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

 


Keywords


Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Pneumonia, Infant, Lymphadenopathy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lin CH, Lin WC, Chiang IP, Ho YJ, Peng CT, Wu KH. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with thyroid and lung involvement in a child: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010;32(4):309-11.

Oikonomou A, Prassopoulos P, Hytiroglou P, Kirvassilis FV, Tsanakas JN. Atypical CT findings of isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 4-year-old boy. J Thorac Imaging. 2007;22(2):176-9.

Salotti JA, Nanduri V, Pearce MS, Parker L, Lynn R, Windebank KP. Incidence and clinical features of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the UK and Ireland. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94(5):376-80.

Weitzman S, Egeler RM. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: update for the pediatrician. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2008;20(1):23-9.

Barclay M, Devaney R, Bhatt JM. Paediatric pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Breathe. 2020;16(2):200003.

Robert K. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020: 2710-2711.

Ottink M, Feijen S, Rosias P, Robben S, Granzen B, Heynens J, Jöbsis R. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with complicated pneumonia, a case report. Respir Med Case Rep. 2013;8:28-31.

Ronceray L, Pötschger U, Janka G, Gadner H, Minkov M, German Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, et al. Pulmonary involvement in pediatric-onset multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: effect on course and outcome. J Pediatr. 2012;161(1):129-33.

Gupta P, Shah D, Ghai OP. Childhood Malignancies. In: Ghai OP, Gupta P, Paul VK, eds. Ghai Essential Pediatrics. 9th ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2019: 616-617.

Histocyte Society. LCH Articles, 2013. Available at: https://www.histiocytesociety.org/LCH-Articles. Accessed on 28 January 2021.

Salotti JA, Nanduri V, Pearce MS, Parker L, Lynn R, Windebank KP. Incidence and clinical features of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the UK and Ireland. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94(5):376-80.