Pediatric tracheostomy: a review


  • Santosh Kumar Swain Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India



Pediatric tracheostomy, Upper airway obstruction, Prolonged ventilation


Tracheostomy is a life shaving surgery done in critically sick patients. Pediatric tracheostomy is a surgical procedure performed since ancient times. Performing tracheostomy in the pediatric age group is often challenging because of its association with morbidity and mortality. The indications for pediatric tracheostomy have been changed significantly in the last few decades. In pediatric patients, the common indications for tracheostomy are prolonged ventilation and upper airway obstruction. Advanced methods in pediatric anesthesia and increased awareness for vaccination for serious infections like measles, mumps, diphtheria, tetanus, and hemophilus influenza type b (Hib) among pediatric age increased the changing indications for performing tracheostomy from emergency to more elective one. There are numerous research papers available in medical literature for adult tracheostomy with its indications, surgical techniques, and complications, but literature for pediatric tracheostomy is scarce. This is always a requirement for standard guidelines for standard protocols for pediatric tracheostomy. Proper standardization of pediatric tracheostomy, timing, and appropriate indications are helpful to reduce the complications and mortality related to pediatric tracheostomy. Here, this review article is attempting to discuss the indications, preoperative evaluation, surgical techniques, complications, and post-operative care of the pediatric tracheostomy.


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