Secondary attack rate among high-risk contacts of COVID-19 paediatric index cases: a study at the beginning of the pandemic in Pune city of Western Maharashtra, India
Keywords:COVID -19, Maharashtra, Pediatrics, Secondary attack rate
Background: The COVID-19 was the emerging disease caused by SARS-COV2. Efficient transmission of this disease occurs through droplets and fomites. The susceptibility of children to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and transmission of COVID-19 from children to others is a relatively unexplored area. The aim of this study was to understand the transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children. Study objectives were to estimate secondary attack rate of COVID-19 from paediatric index case during the early phase of pandemic in Pune city and to identify factors associated with transmission and development of the COVID-19 disease.
Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in the month of June 2020. The sample includes 58 contacts of 11 laboratory confirmed pediatric index cases of COVID-19 from Pune municipal corporation after written informed consent. A confidential telephonic interview of parents was taken by using a prestructured questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data, family background, type of house, development of symptoms, outcome etc.
Results: The mean age of primary pediatric case was 12.7±5.1 years. All of them were symptomatic. The SAR estimated was 55.2%. The factors significantly affecting SAR were comorbidity, no. of family members, type of family, overcrowding, no. of rooms, bedroom attached with toilet.
Conclusions: The household SAR from paediatric patients is high and is closely associated with family size and other household characteristics. Hence, home quarantine should be advocated in smaller families with appropriate isolation facilities; more emphasis is given to co-morbid individuals.
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