Study of risk factors in children with birth asphyxia

Nishant Yadav, Sachin Damke


Background: Birth asphyxia is a serious clinical problem worldwide and contributes greatly to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Perinatal asphyxia is the fifth largest cause of under-5 deaths (8.5%) after pneumonia, diarrhea, neonatal infections and complications of preterm birth. Risk factors of birth asphyxia have been divided into antepartum, intrapartum and fetal. Risk factors include increasing or decreasing ma-ternal age, prolonged rupture of membranes, meconium stained fluid, multiple births, non-attendance for antenatal care, low birth weight infants, malpresentation, augmentation of labour with oxytocin, antepartum haemorrhage, severe eclampsia and pre-eclampsia, ante partum and intrapartum anemia. The objective of this study was to study the risk factors in children with birth asphyxia.

Methods: Observational prospective study was conducted on babies delivered in our hospital and requiring resuscitation (basic and/or advanced). Their clinical course was observed and studied in NICU till time of discharge or death. Detailed maternal history was taken for risk factors.

Results: The mean age of mothers was 24.28 years which ranged from 20 years to 29 years. Most of the population was from the lower middle and upper lower socioeconomic status as per the Modified Kuppuswamy scale. 51% neonates were born to primiparous mothers. Anemia was widely prevalent in the moth-ers of neonates requiring resuscitation. The maternal risk factors for newborns requiring resuscita-tion were PIH (23.7%) , oligohydramnios (15%),multiple gestation (3.75 %), PROM (2.5%), diabetes mellitus (2.5%) and UTI (2.5%).One third of neonates requiring resuscitation were born to unbooked mothers.In the neonates requiring resuscitation, the male to female ratio was 1:1. The fetal factors associated with resuscitation of newborns were IUGR (33.75%), fetal distress (31.25%), prematurity (26.25%), MAS (12.5%) and malpresentations (5%).

Conclusions: The most common maternal risk factors for newborns requiring resuscitation was PIH followed by oligohydramnios, multiple gestation, PROM, diabetes mellitus and UTI.IUGR was the most com-mon fetal risk factor followed by fetal distress, prematurity, MAS and malpresentations. One third of neonates requiring resuscitation were born to unbooked mothers. In There was no gender predomi-nance found in this study.


Birth asphyxia, PIH, PROM, IUGR

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