Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria
Keywords:Socio-demograghic, ADHD, Children, Nigeria
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-behavioural disorders of childhood. Environmental influences have been reported to be important in its aetiopathogenesis. There is a paucity of publications assessing the socio-demographic and environmental determinants of ADHD in Sub Saharan Africa. The aim was to determine the socio-demographic and environmental determinants of ADHD in primary school children in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria.
Methods: Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic teacher rating scale for ADHD was administered on 1174 pupils aged 6-12 years drawn from twelve primary schools in Ikot-Ekpene, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Parents of the selected pupils completed a proforma on their socio-demographics and environmental factors.
Results: The mean age of the study population was 9.32 years with a male preponderance. ADHD was significantly associated with lower socio-economic status, being a product of multiple gestations, having parents with financial difficulty during the first few years of child’s life among others.
Conclusions: ADHD is associated with common socio-demographic and environmental risk factors. Some of these factors such as low income and low socio-economic status are modifiable. Poverty alleviation, job security and empowerment of parents of children living in resource-poor settings is critical to reducing the prevalence of ADHD.
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