DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20213312

Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria

Ekemini Joseph Hogan, Mkpouto Udeme Akpan, Echey Ijezie, Kevin Bassey Edem

Abstract


Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-behavioural disorders of childhood. Environmental influences have been reported to be important in its aetiopathogenesis. There is a paucity of publications assessing the socio-demographic and environmental determinants of ADHD in Sub Saharan Africa. The aim was to determine the socio-demographic and environmental determinants of ADHD in primary school children in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria.

Methods: Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic teacher rating scale for ADHD was administered on 1174 pupils aged 6-12 years drawn from twelve primary schools in Ikot-Ekpene, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Parents of the selected pupils completed a proforma on their socio-demographics and environmental factors.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 9.32  years with a male preponderance. ADHD was significantly associated with lower socio-economic status, being a product of multiple gestations, having parents with financial difficulty during the first few years of child’s life among others.

Conclusions: ADHD is associated with common socio-demographic and environmental risk factors. Some of these factors such as low income and low socio-economic status are modifiable. Poverty alleviation, job security and empowerment of parents of children living in resource-poor settings is critical to reducing the prevalence of ADHD.


Keywords


Socio-demograghic, ADHD, Children, Nigeria

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