Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria


  • Ekemini Joseph Hogan Department of Pediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Mkpouto Udeme Akpan Department of Pediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Echey Ijezie Department of Pediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Kevin Bassey Edem Department of Pediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria



Socio-demograghic, ADHD, Children, Nigeria


Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-behavioural disorders of childhood. Environmental influences have been reported to be important in its aetiopathogenesis. There is a paucity of publications assessing the socio-demographic and environmental determinants of ADHD in Sub Saharan Africa. The aim was to determine the socio-demographic and environmental determinants of ADHD in primary school children in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria.

Methods: Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic teacher rating scale for ADHD was administered on 1174 pupils aged 6-12 years drawn from twelve primary schools in Ikot-Ekpene, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Parents of the selected pupils completed a proforma on their socio-demographics and environmental factors.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 9.32  years with a male preponderance. ADHD was significantly associated with lower socio-economic status, being a product of multiple gestations, having parents with financial difficulty during the first few years of child’s life among others.

Conclusions: ADHD is associated with common socio-demographic and environmental risk factors. Some of these factors such as low income and low socio-economic status are modifiable. Poverty alleviation, job security and empowerment of parents of children living in resource-poor settings is critical to reducing the prevalence of ADHD.

Author Biography

Ekemini Joseph Hogan, Department of Pediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Consultant pediatrician, Department of pediatrics


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Original Research Articles