Accidental household poisoning in children: shedding light on the common agents and risk factors
Keywords:Accidental poisoning, Household poisoning, Ingestion, Intoxication, Poisoning agents
Background: Household poisoning is one of the leading causes of accidental injuries in children. The cause may vary between different countries. The aim of the study was to identify the causative agents as well as risk factors pertaining to our country such as social, demographic, cultural factors and local customs.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All children in the age group of 6 months to 12 years with established diagnosis of acute accidental known household poisoning were included in the study group.
Results: Most of the children with accidental poisoning were in the age group of less than 2 years (56.8%), with male preponderance (66.7%). The commonest poisoning agent was kerosene in 45% of the children followed by detergents (9%), drugs (8.1%), paint thinner (7.1%) and ant chalk (4.5%). In 62.2% of cases poisons were not in original container. Socio-demographic factors such as parents’ education status, mother’s employment or type of family did not show significant correlation.
Conclusions: Accidental poisoning is a preventable cause of morbidity and rarely even mortality in children. Awareness needs to be generated amongst parents about simple but effective measures in the household to prevent such incidents. Given the pandemic, the presence of children at home constantly increases the importance of vigilance regarding this public health issue.
Yaqoob M, Yar M, Farooq M, Butt AR, Waseem R, Izhar TS. Acute poisoning in children: etiological agents, risk factors and outcomes. Pak J Med Health Sci Mar. 2007;1(1):42-4.
Winston AB, Das AD, Das S, Vazhudhi K, Kumar A, Shanthi FM, Agarwal I. Drug poisoning in the community among children: a nine years' experience from a tertiary care center in south India. Hosp Pract (1995). 2017;45(1):21-7.
Meyer S, Eddleston M, Bailey B, Desel H, Gottschling S, Gortner L. Unintentional household poisoning in children. Klin Padiatr. 2007;219(5):254-70.
Dayasiri MBKC, Jayamanne SF, Jayasinghe CY. Risk Factors for Acute Unintentional Poisoning among Children Aged 1-5 Years in the Rural Community of Sri Lanka. Int J Pediatr. 2017;4375987.
Pirzadeh Z, Jamshidi M, Mollamohammadi M. Acute poisoning in children referred to Qazvin Children Hospital (2009 to 2012). Comprehensive Pediatrics. 2016;7(4).
Khadka SB, Khadka SB. A study of poisoning cases in emergency Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005;3(4):388-91.
Gupta SK, Peshin SS, Srivastava A, Kaleekal T. A study of childhood poisoning at National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. J Occup Health. 2003;45(3):191-6.
Sil A, Ghosh TN, Bhattacharya S, Konar MC, Soren B, Nayek K. A study on clinico-epidemiological profile of poisoning in children in a rural tertiary care hospital. J Nepal Paediatr Soc. 2016;36(2):105-9.
Agarwal G, Bithu K, Agarwal R. An epidemiological study of acute poisoning in children in a tertiary care hospital of western Rajasthan, India. Int J Contemp Pediatrics. 2016;3:1249-51.
Manzar N, Saad SM, Manzar B, Fatima SS. The study of etiological and demographic characteristics of acute household accidental poisoning in children--a consecutive case series study from Pakistan. BMC Pediatr. 2010;10:28.
Schwebel DC, Evans WD, Hoeffler SE, Marlenga BL, Nguyen SP, Jovanov E, et al. Unintentional child poisoning risk: A review of causal factors and prevention studies. Children's health care. 2017;46(2):109-30.
Mansori K, Soori H, Farnaghi F, Khodakarim S, Mansouri HS, Khodadost M. A case-control study on risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016;30:355.
Baqir H, Baig MA, Brown N, Mian AI. Accidental Poisoning in Young Children: an Emergency Medicine Perspective for Pakistan and Other Low-and Middle-Income Countries and a Call for Action. Eurasian J Emerg Med. 2017;16(4):140.
Naik BN, Veerakumar AM, Manikandan S, Kar SS. Prevalence of Domestic Poisoning in a Rural Area of Tamil Nadu. Indian J Forens Med Toxicol. 2016;10(1).
Bojd S, Khajeh A. Chronological variations of children poisoning causes in zahedan, South of iran. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2014;3(3):19223.
Dayasiri KC, Jayamanne SF, Jayasinghe CY. Patterns of acute poisoning with pesticides in the paediatric age group. Int J Emerg Med. 2017;10(1):22.
Osborne PG, Ko YC, Wu MT, Lee CH. Intoxication and substance use disorder to Areca catechu nut containing betel quid: A review of epidemiological evidence, pharmacological basis and social factors influencing quitting strategies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;179:187-97.
Stewart TC, Clark A, Gilliland J, Miller MR, Edwards J, Haidar T, Batey B, et al. Home safe home: Evaluation of a childhood home safety program. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016;81(3):533-40.