Cutaneous manifestations in overweight and obese children and adolescent
Keywords:BMI, Acanthosis nigricans, Striae distensae
Background: Obesity currently is regarded as universal disease of epidemic prevalence and known as the evil of the twentieth century. The last 3 decades we have seen an unprecedented increase in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world including India. Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risks of global deaths worldwide. However, despite all above mentioned problems, the impact of obesity on the skin has received minimal attention though it can be a window for obesity markers.
Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive observational study. A total of 131 patients of age 5 to 18 years with BMI greater than 85 percentiles for age and sex and those willing to give consent for participation in the study were selected.
Results: Maximum number of patients were obese with their BMI (body mass index) range falling between 95-99 percentile; according to IAP guidelines obese were 83 (63.35%), followed by overweight 27 (20.61%) and 21(16.03%) patients were severely obese. Acanthosis nigricans was the major cutaneous finding seen in 100% cases. Other common manifestations were striae distensae, acrocordons, hyperhidrosis, miliaria, frictional dermatitis and intertrigo, acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis and hypertrichosis.
Conclusions: Obesity is associated significantly with certain dermatoses in children as well as in adults. Skin care of obese patients deserves particular attention, not only because of the high prevalence of cutaneous alteration but mainly because many of these disorders are preventable and could be treated which may improve patient’s quality of life.
Park K. Text book of preventive and social medicine. 23rd ed. India: Bhanot Publishers; 2015: 397-400.
Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal KK, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, et al. Revised Iap Growth Charts For Height, Weight And Body Mass Index For 5- To 18-Year-Old Indian Children. Indian Paediatr. 2015;52(1):47-55.
Yosipowitch G, DeVore A, Dawn A. Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(6):901-16.
Scheinfeld NS. Obesity and dermatology. Clin Dermatol. 2004;22(4):303-9.
Hahler B. An overview of dermatological conditions commonly associated with the obese patient. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2006;52(6):34-6.
Hud JA, Cohen JB, Wagner JM, Cruz PD. Prevalence a significance acanthosis nigricans in an adult obese population. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(7):941‑4.
Gupta M. Cutaneous manifestations of obesity in children: a prospective study. Indian J Paed Dermatol. 2017;18(1):28-30.
Nithun TM, Ranugha PS, Betkerur JB, Shastry V. Association of acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance in Indian children and youth-a HOMA2‑IR based cross‑sectional study. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2019;10(3):272-8.
Hsu HS, Chen W, Chen SC, Ko FD. Colored striae in obese children and adolescents. Zhonghua Min Guo Xiao Er Ke YiXue Hui Za Zhi. 1996;37(5):349-52.
Mirmirani P, Carpenter DM. Skin disorders associated with obesity in children and adolescents: a population-based study. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014;31(2):183-90.
Shipman AR, Millington GWM. Obesity and the skin. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165(4):743-50.