Prevalence and risk factors associated with low birth weight babies-a cross sectional study
Keywords:Low birth weight, Maternal and child health services, Maternal risk factors, Newborn
Background: Babies with a birth weight of less than 2500 grams, irrespective of the period of their gestation are termed as low birth weight (LBW) babies. Despite consistent efforts to improve the quality of maternal and child health, more than twenty million LBW babies are born every year throughout the world. The present study was to explore the effects of various maternal risk factors associated with low birth-weight of institutionally delivered newborns. Across the world, neonatal mortality is 20 times more likely for LBW babies compared to normal birth weight (NBW) babies (>2.5 kg).
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai from December 2019 to October 2020. Altogether 350 babies were taken who were delivered at ACS hospital.
Results: The number of times of ANC attendance was also significantly associated with LBW, odds ratio (OR)=1.296, and p=0.001. The number of meals was not associated with LBW OR=0.946, and p=0.831. The gestational age assessed as completed weeks of pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW OR=3.302; p=0.00001.
Conclusions: This study suggests that there are several factors interplaying which lead to LBW babies. Socio-demographic factors (maternal age and gestational age) and antenatal care are more important.
World Health Organization. Low birth weight: a tabulation of available information, WHO/MCH/92.2. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1992. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/59205. Accessed on 25 January 2021.
WHO and UNICEF. Country, regional and global estimates of low birth-weight. 2004. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43184. Accessed on 25 January 2021.
Berkowitz GS, Papiemik E. Epidemiology of preterm birth. Epidemiol Rev. 1993;15:41443.
Dunin-Wasowicz D, Rowecka-Trzebicka K, Milewska- Bobula B, Kassur-Siemienska B, Bauer A, Idzik M, et al. Risk factors for cerebral palsy in very low birth weight infants in the 1980s and 1990s. J Child Neurol. 2000;15:414-20.
Barker DJP, Forsen T, Uutela A, Osmond C, Eriksson JG. Size at birth and resilience to effects of poor living conditions in adult life: longitudinal study. Br Med J. 2001;323:1273-6.
Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Winter PD, Osmond C, Barker DJP. Catch up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. Br Med J. 1999;318:427-31.
Gogoi N. Socio-demographic determinants of low birth weight in Northeastern city, India. Int J Intg Med Sci. 2018;5(3):587-91.
Kumar S, Kumar R, Tewari A. Prevalence and Determinants of Low Birth Weight: An Experience from a Secondary Referral Unit Of Burdwan District, West Bengal (India). IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2018;17(3):5459.
World Health Organization, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 1992. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42980. Accessed on 25 January 2021.
Mavalankar DV, Gray RH, Trivedi CR. Risk factors for preterm and term low birthweight in Ahmedabad, India. Int J Epidemiol. 1992;21(2):263-72.
Ehrenberg HM, Dierker L, Milluzzi C, Mercer BM. Low maternal weight, failure to thrive in pregnancy, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189(6):1726-30.
Singh SD, Shrestha S, Marahatta SB. Incidence and risk factors of low birth weight babies born in Dhulikhel Hospital. J Inst Med. 2003;32(3):339-42.
Ugwu R. The Proportion of Low Birth Weight Babies due to Small for Gestational Age and Prematurity in Port Harcourt, South Nigeria-Changing Trends. Int J Pediatr Neonat. 2010;13(1).
Adamson H. Low Birth Weight in Relation to Maternal Age and Multiple Pregnancies at Muhimbili National Hospital. DMSJ. 2006;14(2).
Dennis N, Aribodor OCN, Christine IE, Ikechukwu O, Reed PW, Harrison OE. Association of Low Birth Weight and Placental Malarial Infection in Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3(8):620-3.
Zenebe K, Birhan N. Low Birth Weight & Associated Factors Among Newborns in Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia:Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study. Indo Global J Pharm Sci. 2014;4(2):74-80.