DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20213323

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in infant temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Ananya Roy, Dhiraj Chandra Biswas

Abstract


Since the end of December 2019, corona virus disease (COVID-19) has spread globally. Though the majority of COVID-19 cases in pediatric age group have not been critical, a novel disease named as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been emerging as the pandemic progresses. A systemic review of the literature was performed in the principle medical databases including Pubmed, Embase and Google Scholar between December 2019 and March 2021. A total of 40 articles were identified in the described database. Altogether 12 articles met the inclusion criteria and were eligible. The critical and severe case were more in infant age group, also the number of hospitalization was more in infant age group than other pediatric age groups. A number of case reports reflected that infants with COVID-19 positive may present with shock and sepsis. The mean age of MIS-C COVID-19 positive children was 1.1 year emphasizing the vulnerability of infant age group to this novel disease MIS-C. MIS-C is a new type of presentation of COVID-19 infection. Special emphasis should be given in infant age group with COVID-19 who are vulnerable to develop MIS-C. 


Keywords


Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), Infant, COVID-19

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gao GF. From “A”IV to “Z”IKV: attacks from emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Cell. 2018;172(6):1157-9.

Shi Z, Hu Z. A review of studies on animal reservoirs of the SARS coronavirus. Virus Res. 2008;133(1):74-87.

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective COHORT study. Lancet. 2020;395(10229):1054-62.

CDC. Fact sheet: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), 2020. Available at: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00432.asp. Accessed on 1 May 2021.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2020) Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents with COVID-19. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/multisystem-inflammatory-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents-with-covid-19.

Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Leung GM, Hedley AJ, Fraser C, Riley S, et al. Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. Lancet. 2003;361(9371):1761-6.

Riphagen S, Gomez X, Gonzalez-Martinez C, Wilkinson N, Theocharis P. Hyperinflammatory shock in children during COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2020;395(10237):1607-8.

Verdoni L, Mazza A, Gervasoni A, Martelli L, Ruggeri M, Ciuffreda M, et al. An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational COHORT study. Lancet. 2020;395(10239):1771-8.

Belhadjer Z, Méot M, Bajolle F, Khraiche D, Legendre A, Abakka S, et al. Acute heart failure in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in the context of global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Circulation. 2020;142(5):429-36.

Grimaud M, Starck J, Levy M, Marais C, Chareyre J, Khraiche D, et al. Acute myocarditis and multisystem inflammatory emerging disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection in critically ill children. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10:69.

RCPCH Royal College of paediatrics and child health. Fact sheet: Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS)-guidance for clinicians, 2021. Available at: https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/resources/guidance-paediatric-multisystem-inflammatory-syndrome-temporally-associated-covid-19-pims. Accessed on 1 May 2021.

CDC. Fact sheet: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Available at: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00432.asp. Accessed on 1 May 2021.

WHO. Fact sheet: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents with COVID 19 scientific brief. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/multisystem-inflammatory-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents-with-covid-19. Accessed on 1 May 2021

Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 among children in China. Pediatrics. 2020;145:20200702.

Salemi JL, Menard J, Pathak EB. Estimating severe and critical illness in children with COVID-19. Early Hum Dev. 2020;144:105052.

Garazzino S, Montagnani C, Donà D, Meini A, Felici E, Vergine G, et al. Multicentre Italian study of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents, preliminary data as at 10 April 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(18):2000600.

Aghdam MK, Jafari N, Eftekhari K. Novel coronavirus in a 15-day-old neonate with clinical signs of sepsis, a case report. Infect Dis (Lond). 2020;52(6):427-9.

Hoang A, Chorath K, Moreira A, Evans M, Burmeister-Morton F, Burmeister F, et al. COVID-19 in 7780 pediatric patients: a systematic review. Clinic Med. 2020;24:100433.

Rodriguez-Gonzalez M, Rodríguez-Campoy P, Sánchez-Códez M, Gutiérrez-Rosa I, Castellano-Martinez A, Rodríguez-Benítez A. New onset severe right ventricular failure associated with COVID-19 in a young infant without previous heart disease. Cardiol Young. 2020;30(9):1346-9.

CDC. Fact sheet: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), 2020. Available at: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/han00432.asp. Accessed on 1 May 2021.

Nguyen DC, Haydar H, Pace ER, Zhang XS, Dobbs KR. Pediatric case of severe COVID-19 with shock and multisystem inflammation. Cureus. 2020;12(6):8915.