Tuberous sclerosis complex associated neuropsychiatric disorder in children: experience sharing from a tertiary care hospital
Keywords:Tuberous sclerosis complex, Neuropsychiatric disorder, Children
Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder where there is multisystem involvement. Most important manifestations are neurological and psychiatric disorders. These disorders should be detected timely and addressed adequately. The common psychiatric disorders are autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), learning disorder etc. This study has been done to describe the pattern of psychiatric disorders in children with TSC.
Methods: This is an observational study taken place in a tertiary care hospital taken place on Children of 0-18 years of age. The study subjects were 84 patients with TSC. Detail history and physical examination had been done along with neuroimaging, EEG and target organs screening. Different psychometric tool was used for psychiatric evaluation.
Results: Total 84 patients were included in this study, mean age was 7+3.96 years, 54% were female. Physical finding were as follows: ash leaf spot, shagreen patch, adenoma sebaceum, cafe au lait spot, rhabdomyoma, renal cyst and angiomyolipoma etc. Seventy patients had epilepsy, most common being focal epilepsy (45.7%), 17.1% had epileptic spasm. Fifty percent patients had developmental delay. Regarding psychiatric disorders, most common disorder was ADHD in 27.38%, ASD in 23.81% and both in 10.71%. ID was found in 20.24% study subjects. Early onset of seizure was associated with more psychiatric disorders.
Conclusions: Neuropsychiatric manifestations of TSC are diverse and often are poorly addressed. The most commonly found disorders in this study were ADHD, ASD and ID. Early onset of seizure was associated with the psychiatric disorders in TSC.
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