Microalbuminuria among children with congenital heart disease seen in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

Khadijat O. Isezuo, Usman M. Sani, Usman M. Waziri, Bilkisu G. Ilah, Fatima B. Jiya, Muhammad B. Abdulrahman, Ibrahim J. Hano


Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) especially cyanotic CHD has been associated with microalbuminuria which is an early marker of glomerular nephropathy but this has hardly been studied in African children. The aim of this study was to compare mean microalbuminuria levels and associations among children with acyanotic CHD, cyanotic CHD and normal controls.

Methods: Forty-one (41) children comprising 19 acyanotic CHD, 14 cyanotic CHD and 8 without CHD aged 1 to 15 years were recruited in a cross-sectional study. Quantitative urinary microalbuminuria was measured by ELISA technique. Positive result was microalbuminuria of 30-300 mcg/mgCr. Mean levels were compared by student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was taken at p<0.05.

Results: There were 22 (53.7%) females and 19 (46.3%) males. Mean level of microalbuminuria was highest in those with cyanotic CHD at 147.7±78.8 mcg/mgCr, followed by those with acyanotic CHD at 111.8±61.5 mcg/mgCr and lowest in those without CHD at 67.3±31.6 mcg/mgCr. There was significant difference between the groups with CHD and those without CHD (F=4.1, p=0.03) and microalbuminuria had a significant but weak negative correlation with oxygen saturation implying that microalbuminuria increased with worsening cyanosis.

Conclusions: Microalbuminuria was high among the patients with CHD, though higher in cyanotic patients warranting closer follow up of these patients.


Microalbuminuria, CHD, Acyanotic, Cyanotic, Controls

Full Text:



Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital Heart Disease in 56,109 Births Incidence and Natural History. Circulation. 1971;43(3):323-32.

Hoffman JIE, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(12):1890-900.

Agras PI, Derbent M, Ozcay F, Baskin E, Turkoglu S, Aldemir D, et al. Effect of congenital heart disease on renal function in childhood. Nephron Physiol. 2005;99(1):10-5.

Dittrich S, Haas NA, Buhrer C, Muller C, Dahnert I, Lange PE. Renal impairment in patients with long-standing cyanotic congenital heart disease. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). 1998;87(9):949-54.

Van der Bom T, Zomer AC, Zwinderman AH, Meijboom FJ, Bouma BJ, Mulder BJM. The changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8(1):50-60.

Amoozgar H, Basiratnia M, Ghasemi F. Renal Function in Children with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Pre- and Post-Cardiac Surgery Evaluation. Iranian J Pediatr. 2014;24(1):81-6.

Dimopoulos K, Diller G-P, Koltsida E, Pijuan-Domenech A, Papadopoulou SA, Babu-Narayan SV, et al. Prevalence, Predictors, and Prognostic Value of Renal Dysfunction in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease. Circulation. 2008;117(18):2320-8.

Krull F, Ehrich JH, Wurster U, Toel U, Rothganger S, Luhmer I. Renal involvement in patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease. Acta paediatrica Scandinavica. 1991;80(12):1214-9.

Zheng J, Yao Y, Han L, Xiao Y. Renal function and injury in infants and young children with congenital heart disease. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2013;28(1):99-104.

Maleki M, Ghaffari S, Ghaffari MR, Samadi M, Rastkar B, Maleki P, et al. Proteinuria in Congenital Heart Disease: Is It a Real Problem? J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2011;3(1):17-21.

Morgan C, Al-Aklabi M, Garcia Guerra G. Chronic kidney disease in congenital heart disease patients: a narrative review of evidence. Canad J Kidney Health Dis. 2015;2:27.

Toto RD. Microalbuminuria: definition, detection, and clinical significance. J Clin Hypertension (Greenwich, Conn). 2004;6(11):2-7.

Araoye MO. Sample size calculation In: MO Araoye. Research Methodology with Statistics for Health and Social Sciences. Nathdex (Publ) Ilorin. 2004;115-21.

Rogińska N, Kawalec W, Żuk M, Litwin M, Brzezińska-Rajszys G. Microalbuminuria, proteinuria and renal function in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Abstract presentation at University of Kiel. Available at: FinalPrint/MP1_7fin.pdf. Accessed on: 08 October 2020.

Sampson U, Ponnazhagan K, Muninathan N. Study of Microalbumuria in Congenital Heart Disease. Int J Scientific Res. 2016;5(9):402-3.

Matjuda EN, Sewani-Rusike CR, Anye SNC, Engwa GA, Nkeh-Chungag BN. Relationship between High Blood Pressure and Microalbuminuria in Children Aged 6–9 Years in a South African Population. 2020;7(9):131.

Isezuo K, Ibitoye P, Jiya N, Ugege M, Sani M, Yusuf T, et al. Prevalence of Microalbuminuria among healthy secondary school students in Sokoto Metropolis, Northwestern Nigeria. Afr J Paed Nephrol. 2016(3):74-83.

Amornchaicharoensuk Y, Werawatganon T, Tohsukhowong P, Boonla C, Gengsakul A, Tarunotai T, et al. Comparison of renal function between cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease in children and adolescent. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2012;95(12):1501-8.

Hongsawong N, Khamdee P, Silvilairat S, Chartapisak W. Prevalence and associated factors of renal dysfunction and proteinuria in cyanotic congenital heart disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2017;33:1-9.

Rajpal S, Alshawabkeh L, Almaddah N, Joyce CM, Shafer K, Gurvitz M, Waikar SS, Mc Causland FR, Landzberg MJ, Opotowsky AR. Association of Albuminuria With Major Adverse Outcomes in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Results From the Boston Adult Congenital Heart Biobank. JAMA Cardiol. 2018;3(4):308-316.

Hamed D, Abdellatif A, Abdelsalam M. Renal Dysfunction In Children With Congenital Cyanotic Heart disease. Zagazig University Med J. 2020;6.