Clinical and laboratory profile of urinary tract infection in febrile children aged 1 to 5 years

Bhaskar Reddy A., Sushma Sri Laxmi Y.


Background:Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in the pediatric age group and is a significant risk factor for long term sequelae. The clinical signs and symptoms of UTI are nonspecific and vague in the first 6 years of age. The aim was to study the prevalence of urinary tract infection in 500 febrile children.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which 500 febrile children aged 1 to 5 years who attended pediatric outpatient department were selected, detailed history was taken and clinical examination was done in all the cases to find out the cause of fever. Necessary investigations were carried out to find the cause of fever and all the data were recorded in a specially designed proforma for this study.

Results:Prevalence of UTI in febrile children in the age group of 1-5 years was 2.9% in males and 5.5% in females with overall estimated prevalence of 4%. The most common organism isolated from patients with UTI was E. coli. Ultrasonographic features suggestive of acute pyelonephritis were found in 20% of cases with UTI. Micturating cysto-urethrogram (MCU) showed vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in 2 cases.

Conclusions:UTI should be considered as a potential cause of fever in children below 5 years of age. As the febrile children with UTI usually present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, urine culture should be considered as a part of diagnostic evaluation. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of UTI in children. Parents should be educated about the importance of UTI and its long term complications so that they bring the children voluntarily for regular follow up.  


Urinary tract infection, Febrile children, Urine culture

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