Prevalence and correlates of neurodevelopmental disorders among children in India: a narrative review
Keywords:Neurodevelopmental disorders, Prevalence, Comorbidities, Risk factors, Correlates, India, Review
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are seen disproportionately affecting the low-income communities. Paucity of consistent and large-scale studies in India and variations in assessment and diagnostic tools reduce the scope for generalization of prevalence estimates to national level. This review tried to consolidate the existing community-based evidence of the prevalence of NDDs, risk factors and comorbidities among children in India. We searched studies related to the review objectives on search engines PubMed and Google Scholar. The community or school-based studies in India, published in English language were included. The prevalence of each of these NDDs differed in different locations and age groups. The prevalence appeared to be increasing with increase in age. Non-institutional delivery, perinatal asphyxia or delayed crying, low birth weight or prematurity, neonatal illness or neurological infections were significantly associated with the NDDs. Most of the significant risk factors are modifiable with the help of effective programs to improve maternal and child healthcare and nutrition. Further large-scale, good-quality epidemiological studies in community settings are needed to develop and prioritize the delivery of the prevention and rehabilitation interventions.
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