DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20160169

Immunization status of children 12 to 18 months of age presenting to tertiary care center at Aurangabad, Maharashtra:an observational study

Madhuri B. Engade, Jagannath R. Kakade, Bharatkumar K. Gajare, Nitin J. Adhane, Shivarajkumar R. Koppa

Abstract


Background: India is off track from set immunization coverage targets. Coverage data helps identify and address weak links. Study conducted to determine the primary immunization status of children and the factors, reasons affecting it.  

Methods: Cross sectional observation study at tertiary care center, Aurangabad Maharashtra. 12 to 18 months’ age children presenting to pediatric outpatient department from September 2012 to August 2014 were enrolled consecutively and assessed for completion of primary vaccination series as per National immunization schedule; sociodemographic details, reasons for partial or non-immunization noted. Chi square test of independence was performed to examine relation between sociodemographic variables and immunization status.

Results: Of 900 children, male to female ratio was 1.4:1, urban to rural 4:1, Hindu to Muslim 2.4:1. 69.2% were fully, 27.8% partially, 3% non-immunized. Coverage for vaccines: BCG  96.6%, 1st, 2nd and 3rd doses of OPV and DPT 95.5%, 94.2% and 91.2%, Hepatitis B 93.6%, 84% and 70.8% respectively, measles 82.2%. Vaccine dropout BCG to Measles was 14.84%. Immunization status was better in urban population, Hindus, hospital delivered children, lower birth orders, higher socioeconomic classes, older mothers, higher parental education and occupation, with immunization card (all with p<0.001). 277 children were not fully immunized as postponed due to child’s illness, lack of knowledge of schedule/ subsequent doses and lack of motivation.

Conclusions: DTP3 coverage is on target, completion of primary immunization series and measles not. Rural, Muslim, lower socioeconomic status populations likely to miss or do not receive primary vaccine series. Knowledge of vaccine schedule is poor.


Keywords


Immunization coverage, Socio-demographic factors, Dropout rate, Primary vaccine series

Full Text:

PDF

References


Who.int. [Internet] 2015. http://www.who.int/gho/ child_health/mortality/ mortality_under_five. Accessed online from 10 December 2015.

mohfw.nic.in. [Internet]. 2015. http://www.mohfw.nic.in/WriteReadData/l892s/Immunization_UIP.pdf. Accessed online from 10 December 2015.

Nhp.gov.in. Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), National Health Portal of India [Internet]. 2015. Available from: http://www.nhp.gov.in/ universal-immunization-programme-uip_pg. Accessed online from 15 December 2015.

Census.co.in. census.co.in [Internet]. 2015 Available from: http://www.census.co.in. Accessed online from 15 December 2015.

[Internet]. 1st ed. 2015 Available from: http:// www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/ Vaccination_coverage_cluster_survey_annex.pdf. Accessed online from 15 December 2015.

http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2014/october/3_SAGE_GVAP_Assessment_recommendations_Arora_Oct_2014_V3_16_Oct_2014_NKA.pdf. Accessed online from 15 December 2015.

Admin.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in. UNICEF coverage evaluation survey 2009, India Environment Portal, News, reports, documents, blogs, data, analysis on environment & development, India, South Asia [Internet]. 2010. Accessed online from 15 December 2015.

Rapid Survey on Children 2013-2014 [Internet]. 1st ed. Ministry of Women and Child Development Government of India; 2015. Accessed online from 15 December 2015.

Gupta P, Pore P, Patil U. Evaluation of immunization coverage in the rural area of Pune, Maharashtra, using the 30 cluster sampling technique. J Fam Med Primary Care. 2013;2(1):50.

Wagh S, Mehendale A, Raut M, Wagh S, Sharma D. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage and reasons for partial / non immunization in maharashtra. IJCRR. 2013;5(15):66-72.

Searo.who.int. SEARO | MDG 4: Child health [Internet]. 2015 Accessed online from 15 December 2015.

Who.int. WHO | WHO: Measles deaths decline, but elimination progress stalls in some regions 2015. Accessed online from 2015.

Sharma B, Mahajan H, Velhal G. Immunization Coverage: Role of Sociodemographic Variables. Advances in Preventive Medicine. 2013;2013:1-5.

Nitin L, Sudip B, Mehul P, Amrita S, Jitesh M, Dipesh P. Immunization status of 12-23 months children of urban Jamnagar. Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science. 2014;2(1):51.

Indian Medical Gazette. Assessment of Socio demographic Factors Affecting Immunization Status of Children in Age Group of 12-23 Months in a Rural Area. 2013:164-9.

Yadav J, Singh P. Immunization Status of Children and Mothers in the State of Madhya Pradesh. Indian journal of community medicine. 2004;29(3):147-8.

Nath B, Singh J, Awasthi S, Bhushan V, Kumar V, Singh S. A study on determinants of immunization coverage among 12-23 months old children in urban slums of Lucknow district, India. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;61(11):598.

Chhabra P, Nair P, Gupta A, Sandhir M, Kannan A. Immunization in urbanized villages of Delhi. Indian J Pediatr. 2007;74(2):131-4.

Kar M, Reddaiah VP, ShashiKant. Primary Immunization Status of Children in Slum Areas of South Delhi. The Challenge of Reaching the Urban Poor. Indian J Comm Med.2001;26(3):151-4.

Nirupam S. Sex bias in immunization coverage in urban area of UP. Indian Paediatr. 1990;27(4):338-41.