Clinical spectrum of enteric fever in children admitted to a tertiary care hospital
Keywords:Children, Clinical spectrum, Enteric fever
Background: Enteric fever is a common public health problem with variable clinical presentation. The aim of study was to study the clinical spectrum of enteric fever in children.
Methods: This was a prospective study conducted over period of one year from January 2019 to January 2020 in the Department of Paediatrics at Govt Medical College Srinagar. It included all patients in the age group of 1-18 years who were clinically suspected to have enteric fever and had either a positive blood culture for Salmonella or a positive Widal test.
Results: This study included total of 76 patients out of which 36 were males and 40 were females. The most common presenting symptoms were fever anorexia, vomiting, diarrohea, abdominal pain, headache and constipation. The most common signs were coated tongue, toxic look, hepatomegaly, splenomeagly, pallor, jaundice and abdominal distension. Complications were seen in in 8 (10.5%) patients. Myocarditis was seen in 3 patients. Encephalopathy and hepatitis was seen in 2 patients each. Pneumonia was seen in 1 patient. Majority of patients had normal white blood cell count (4000-11000/cumm). Leukopenia (<4000/cumm) was seen in 10% patients and leukocytosis (>11000/cumm) was seen in 15% patients. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 9% patients. Blood culture was positive in 36 (47.36%) patients. Salmonella typhi was seen in 33 patients whereas Salmonella paratyphi A was seen in 3 patients. All culture positive cases were sensitive to ceftriaxone, cefixime and azithromycin. Ciprofloxacin resistance was seen in 11 (14.4%) patients.
Conclusions: Enteric fever is a common public health problem with fever as most common presenting symptom. Culture yield can be increased in enteric fever by drawing blood culture prior to administration of antibiotics. Ceftriaxone is highly efficacious as monotherapy in enteric fever.
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