Complications and renal biopsy profile in childhood steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome

Subramani Palaniyandi, Anitha Palaniyandi


Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a notable chronic disease in children. The objective of this study was to study the complications and renal biopsy profile in childhood steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Methods: Retrospective observation study done in Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Chennai. Inclusion criteria was children aged 1-12 years diagnosed with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome defined as absence of remission despite therapy with daily prednisolone at a dose of 2mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Remission defined as urine albumin nil/trace in 3 consecutive early morning samples. Children less than 1 year of age, children with renal transplant and incomplete records were excluded. Period of study January 2013- December 2015. Informed consent was obtained and 75 cases who fulfilled the study criteria were included in this study. Variables assessed were incidence of hypertension (both at onset of disease and later during the course of disease), incidence of urinary tract infection and its microbiology, associated co-morbidities, complications of nephrotic syndrome and renal biopsy profile.

Results: Incidence of hypertension at onset of disease was 13.3% and later during the course of the disease was 48%. Most common infection was UTI (28%) and the most common organism isolated in urine culture was E-coli. Incidence of other co-morbidities like asthma, atopy was 17.3%. No case had evidence of end stage renal disease. 60% of cases had undergone renal biopsy and minimal change disease was the most common biopsy finding.

Conclusions: Hypertension and UTI remain important complications in nephrotic syndrome and hence all such children should be continued to be monitored for these complications. Minimal change disease (MCD) was the most common renal biopsy finding.


Minimal change disease, Nephrotic syndrome, Renal biopsy, SRNS

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