Published: 2020-02-25

Prevalence and factors affecting nocturnal enuresis among primary school children in Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India

Naveen Bansal, Manju Bala Goyal


Background: Enuresis is defined as involuntary urination beyond the age of 5 years. The present study was done to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated risk factors in children in Baddi, Himachal Pradesh.

Methods: This was a prospective observational cross-sectional study done in children in the age group of 5-11 years over a period of 18 months. Nocturnal enuresis was defined using the DSM IV criteria. Data analysis was done using chi square test.

Results: The total sample size was 2144 and the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was found to be 22.0% (n=472). There was statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (p=0.0018), history of deep sleep (p<0.05), history of perianal itching (p<0.05), history of urinary tract infection (p<0.05), poor academic performance (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Nocturnal enuresis is a result of complex interplay of multiple physiological and psychological factors. Parents need to be sensitised and educated regarding these causation factors for better prevention and treatment of nocturnal enuresis.


Nocturnal enuresis, School children, Involuntary urination

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