Published: 2020-02-25

Prevalence of rickets: a clinical study

K. Ashwin Reddy


Background: Rickets is a growing bone disease that is common in children and adolescents. It is triggered by the inability of the osteoid to calcify in a growing individual. Even in countries with ample sun exposure, rickets is a common health problem which leads to frequent morbidities. Inadequate information on its prevalence and risk factors is available. For the study of prevalence and prominence of clinical characteristics of rickets in children aged between 0 - 10 years.

Methods: The present research was a cross-sectional analysis. This study was conducted over a period of one year  from June 2018 to June 2019. Department of Pediatrics, Malla Reddy Medical College, Hyderabad, India. This prospective study was conducted on 100 children presenting with signs of rickets in the pediatric department of Malla Reddy Medical College, Hyderabad. The detailed history thorough clinical examination, anthropometric measurements and ratios of each child enrolled in the study was taken. The social and demographic data was also obtained through a structured questionnaire.

Results: The prevalence of rickets was found to be more prevalent in males with (70%) than in females (30%). Rickets prevalence was around 46% in the study which is higher compared to other studies. Most of the cases around 85% belonged to the age group of 0-5 years. Rachitic rosaries were the most prominent sign amongst all.

Conclusions: Because of its greater prevalence among infants, Rickets continue to be a major health problem. Rachitic rosaries and thickened epiphysis are the most common clinical signs. Since Rickets are a disease which can be prevented, vitamin D should be supplemented.



Epiphysis, Prevalence, Rachitic Rosaries, Rickets, Vitamin - D

Full Text:



Pettifor JM. Nutritional rickets: deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or both? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6):1725S-9S.

Lazol JP, Cakan N, Kamat D. 10-year case review of nutritional rickets in Children's Hospital of Michigan. Clin Pediatr. (Phila). 2008;47(4):379-84.

Robinson PD, Högler W, Craig ME, Verge CF, Walker JL, Piper AC, et al. The re-emerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(7):564-8.

Ahmed SF, Franey C, McDevitt H, Somerville L, Butler S, Galloway P, et al. Recent trends and clinical features of childhood vitamin D deficiency presenting to a children's hospital in Glasgow. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96(7):694-6.

Greenbaum LA. Rickets and hypervitaminosis. Textbook of pediatrics. 20th Ed. Saunders, Philadelphia: PA; 2007:253-263.

Dawodu A, Wagner CL. Vitamin D Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: an international perspective. Arch Dis Child. 2007; 92(9):737-40.

Siddiqui TS, Rai MI. Presentation and predisposing factors of nutritional rickets in children of Hazara division. J Ayub Med Coll Abbotabad. 2005;17(3):29-32.

Khattak AA, Rehman G, Shah FU, Khan MK. Study of Rickets in admitted patients at Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. J Postgrad Med Inst. 2004;18:52-8.

Beck-Nielsen SS, Jensen TK, Gram J, Brixen K, Brock-Jacobsen B. Nutritional rickets in Denmark: a retrospective review of children's medical records from 1985 to 2005. Eur J Pediatr. 2009 Aug 1;168(8):941.

Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Pettifor JM. The usefulness of clinical features to identify active rickets. Ann Tropical Paediatr. 2002 Sep 1;22(3):229-37.

Shore RM, Chesney RW. Rickets: part I. Pediatr Radiol. 2013 Feb 1;43(2):140-51.

Najada AS, Habashneh MS, Khader M. The frequency of nutritional rickets among hospitalized infants and its relation to respiratory diseases. J Trop Pediatr. 2004 Dec 1;50(6):364-8.

Kabir ML, Rahman M, Talukder K, Rahman A, Hossain Q, Mostafa G, et al. Rickets among children of a coastal area of Bangladesh. Mymensi Med J. 2004 Jan;13(1):53-8.

Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Strand MA, Pettifor JM. Nutritional rickets around the world causes and future directions. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2006 Mar 1;26(1):1-6.

Bener A, Hoffmann GF. Nutritional rickets among children in a sun rich country. Intern J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2010 Dec 1;2010(1):410502.