A study of pattern of vitamin D deficiency in newborns with reference to its gestational age and birth weight

Raghvendra Narayan, Shivani Singh, Om Prakash Singh


Background: Deficiency of Vitamin D is a prominent health problem globally and its severity is significant in countries like India regardless of age, gender, race and geographical distribution. It is presently the most untreated nutritional deficiency worldwide. Vitamin D during pregnancy has an increasingly recognized range of functions such as  immune modulation, lung development etc. Hence, having the potential to  influence many factors in the developing fetus. Effects of vitamin D deficiency on fetal health is abundant; some being for brief period  of  time  and others may become apparent in later life. Objectives of this study the pattern of vitamin D deficiency in newborns with reference to its gestational age and birth weight.

Methods: This was a hospital-based prospective observational study. Total 100 neonates born at MMIMSR, Ambala were enrolled out of which 50 were term and 50 preterm.

Results: Out of 100 newborns delivered, 53 newborns were vitamin D deficient. Premature  newborns having 32 (60%) and term newborn having 21 (40%) were found to be deficient in vitamin D. Mean 25 (OH) levels were 21.81 ng/dl.

Conclusions: More than half newborns were deficient in vitamin D. Premature newborns had relatively low levels as compared to the term newborns and the  difference  between  two were found  statistically significant.


Gestation period, Low birth weight, Pattern, Preterm, Vitamin D

Full Text:



Holick MF. Vitamin D. A d-lightful solution for health. J investing Med. 2011 Aug 1;59(6):872-80.

Nagpal S, Na S, Rathnachalam R. Noncalcemic action of Vit D receptors ligands. Endocr Rev. 2005;26:662-87.

Holick MF. Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, Heart Disease and Osteoporosis. Am J Clinical Nutr. 2004 Mar 1;79(3):362-71.

Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Eisman JA, et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20(11):1807-20.

van der Meer IM, Middelkoop BJ, Boeke AJ, Lips PT. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Turkish, Moroccan, Indian and sub-Sahara African populations in Europe and their countries of origin: an overview. Oste Int. 2011 Apr 1;22(4):1009-21.

Natasja M, Lips P. Worldwide vitamin D status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;25:671-80.

Harinarayan CV, Joshi SR. Vitamin D status in India- its implications and remedial measures. JAPI. 2009 Jan; 57:40-8.

Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):717-26.

Brooke OG, Brown IR, Bone CD, Carter ND, Cleeve HJ, Maxwell JD, et al. Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth. Br Med J. 1980;280(6216):751-4.

Gezmish O, Black MJ. Vitamin D deficiency in early life and the potential programming of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2013;6(4):588-603.

Cetinkaya M, Cekmez F, Buyukkale G, Erener-Ercan T, Demir F, Tunc T, et al. Lower vitamin D levels are associated with increased risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis in term infants. J Perinatol. 2015;35(1):39-45.

Uriu-Adams JY, Obican SG, Keen CL. Vitamin D and maternal and child health: overview and implications for dietary requirements. Birth Defects Res Part C Embryo Today Rev. 2013;99(1):24-44.

Pacifici GM. Effects of vitamin D in neonates and young infants. Int J Pediatr. 2016;4(1):1273-85.

Ataseven F, Aygün C, Okuyucu A, Bedir A, Kücük Y, Kücüködük S. Is vitamin d deficiency a risk factor for respiratory distress syndrome. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013;83(4):232-7.

Hillman LS, Haddad JG. Human perinatal vitamin D metabolism I: 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal and cord blood. J Pediatr. 1974;84(5):742-9.

Burris HH, Van Marter LJ, McElrath TF, Tabatabai P, Litonjua AA, Weiss ST, et al. Vitamin D status among preterm and full-term infants at birth. Pediatr Res. 2014;75(1-1):75-80.

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff - Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heany RP et al. Evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency : An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911-30.

Aly H, Abdel-Hady H. Vitamin D and neonate: An update J Clin Neonatol. 2015;4(1):1-7.

Singh G, Singh G, Brar H, Malik S. Vitamin D levels in preterm and term neonates at birth. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2016;4(1):48-52.

Yu X, Wang W, Wei Z, Ouyang F, Huang L, Wang X, et al. Vitamin D status and related factors in newborns in Shanghai, China. Nutrients. 2014;6(12):5600-10.

Burris HH, Van Marter LJ, McElrath TF, Tabatabai P, Litonjua AA, Weiss ST, Christou H. Vitamin D status among preterm and full-term infants at birth. Pediatr Resea. 2014 Jan;75(1):75-80.

Fallahi M, Afjeh A, Saneifard H, Namazi N, Kazemian M, Tabatabaee S. Comparison of vitamin D level in preterm and term infant–mother pairs: a brief study. Iran J Neonatol IJN. 2016;7(1):32-6.

Morgan C, Dodds L, Langille DB, Weiler HA, Armson BA, Forest JC, et al. Cord blood vitamin D status and neonatal outcomes in a birth cohort in Quebec, Canada. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016;293(4):731-8.

Weiler H, Fitzpatrick-Wong S, Veitch R, Kovacs H, Schellenberg J, McCloy U, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and whole-body and femur bone mass relative to weight in healthy newborns. CMAJ. 2005;172(6):757-61.

Hossain N, Khanani R, Hussain-Kanani F, Shah T, Arif S, Pal L. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani mothers and their newborns. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2011;112(3):229-33.

Bowyer L, Catling-Paull C, Diamond T, Homer C, Davis G, Craig ME. Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70(3):372-7.