DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20200096

Study of parenting styles, family functioning and its relation to coping strategies in children of specific learning disorder

Enagandula Rupesh, Shipra Singh, Alka A. Subramanyam, Ravindra M. Kamath

Abstract


Background: Families of children with disabilities otherwise experience higher stress; and relation between parenting styles and coping of children is well known. Parental factors and family functioning may play a role in shaping the child, especially having issues like SLD. The objective is to study was coping strategies of children with SLD, parenting styles of their parents, their family functioning and relation of these with each other.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional study undertaken after Institutional Ethics Committee approval, parent’s consent and child’s assent. Participants were 100 consecutive children, diagnosed with SLD, 9-13 years of age. Tools used were: Semi-structured proforma, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and Children’s Coping Strategies Checklist Revision 1.

Results: Authoritarian parenting style was significantly was associated with less use of ‘active’ and ‘support seeking’; and increased use of ‘distraction’ and ‘avoidance’ strategies. High scores on Authoritative style was associated with ‘active’ and ‘support seeking’ strategies. Avoidance coping strategy was associated with poor (high scores) and active coping strategies with higher (low scores) on problem solving, communication, and general family functioning.

Conclusions: Parenting practices and family functioning can be pivotal in determining child’s attitude and coping. Assessment of this can be routinely included in child evaluation.


Keywords


Coping strategy, Family functioning, Parenting style, Specific learning disorder

Full Text:

PDF

References


Specific learning disorder (In: Neurodevelopmental disorders). In: DSM-5 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:66-74.

Singh S, Sawani V, Deokate M, Panchal S, Subramanyam AA, Shah HR, et al. Specific learning disability: A 5 year study from India. Int J Contem Pediatr. 2017;4:863.

Lewis C, Hitch GJ, Walker P. The prevalence of specific arithmetic difficulties and specific reading difficulties in 9‐to 10‐year‐old boys and girls. J Psychol Psychiat. 1994;35(2):283-92.

Tomblin JB, Records NL, Buckwalter P, Zhang X, Smith E, O’Brien M. Prevalence of specific language impairment in kindergarten children. J Speech, Language, Hearing Res. 1997;40(6):1245-60.

Roongpraiwan R, Ruangdaraganon N, Visudhiphan P, Santikul K. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students. J Med Assoc Thailand= Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2002 Nov;85:S1097-103.

Bailey AB, Smith SW. Current topics in review: Providing effective coping strategies and supports for families with children with disabilities. Inter School Clin. 2000 May;35(5):294-6.

Kazak AE, Marvin RS. Differences, difficulties and adaptation: Stress and social networks in families with a handicapped child. Family Relat. 1984;1:67-77.

Konstantareas MM. Autistic, learning disabled and delayed children's impact on their parents. Canadian J Behavioural Sci/Revue Canadienne des Sci du Comport. 1991;23(3):358.

Falik LH. Family patterns of reaction to a child with a learning disability: A mediational perspective. J learning disabilities. 1995;28(6):335-41.

Robinson CC, Mandleco B, Olsen SF, Hart CH. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Develop New Measure. Psychol Reports. 1995;77(3):819-30.

Akister J, Stevenson‐Hinde J. Identifying families at risk: Exploring the potential of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. J Family Therapy. 1991;13(4):411-21.

Miller IW, Epstein NB, Bishop DS, Keitner GI. The McMaster family assessment device: reliability and validity. J Marital Family Therapy. 1985;11(4):345-56.

Skinner H, Steinhauer P, Sitarenios G. Family Assessment Measure (FAM) and process model of family functioning. J Family Therapy. 2000;22(2):190-210.

Byles J, Byrne C, Boyle MH, Offord DR. Ontario Child Health Study: reliability and validity of the general functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Family Process. 1988;27(1):97-104.

Alderfer MA, Fiese BH, Gold JI, Cutuli JJ, Holmbeck GN, Goldbeck L, et al. Evidence-based assessment in pediatric psychology: Family measures. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;33(9):1046-61.

Marks GN. Family size, family type and student achievement: Cross-national differences and the role of socioeconomic and school factors. J Comparat Family Stud. 2006;37(1):1-24.

Jordan NC, Levine SC. Socioeconomic variation, number competence, and mathematics learning difficulties in young children. Develop Disabilit Res Rev. 2009;15(1):60-8.

Park H. Home literacy environments and children's reading performance: A comparative study of 25 countries. Edu Res Evaluat. 2008;14(6):489-505.

Van Steensel R. Relations between socio‐cultural factors, the home literacy environment and children's literacy development in the first years of primary education. J Res Reading. 2006;29(4):367-82.

Berninger VW, Abbott RD, Thomson JB, Raskind WH. Language phenotype for reading and writing disability: A family approach. Sci Studies Reading. 2001;5(1):59-106.

Monuteaux MC, Faraone SV, Herzig K, Navsaria N, Biederman J. ADHD and dyscalculia: Evidence for independent familial transmission. J Learning Disabil. 2005;38(1):86-93.

Snowling MJ, Muter V, Carroll J. Children at family risk of dyslexia: a follow‐up in early adolescence. J Child Psychol Sychiat. 2007;48(6):609-18.

Steinberg L, Elmen JD, Mounts NS. Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Develop. 1989;1:1424-36.

Turner EA, Chandler M, Heffer RW. The influence of parenting styles, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in college students. J College Student Develop. 2009;50(3):337-46.

Pryor-Kowalski M. Learning Disabilities, Juvenile Delinquency and the Family: The Role of' Intensive Parenting'. Michigan Family Rev. 2013;17(1).

Givon S, Court D. Coping strategies of high school students with learning disabilities: a longitudinal qualitative study and grounded theory. International J Qualitate Studies Education. 2010;23(3):283-303.

Donaldson D, Prinstein MJ, Danovsky M, Spirito A. Patterns of children's coping with life stress: Implications for clinicians. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2000;70(3):351-9.

Rossman BR. School‐age children's perceptions of coping with distress: Strategies for emotion regulation and the moderation of adjustment. J Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1992;33(8):1373-97.

De Boo GM, Wicherts JM. Assessing cognitive and behavioral coping strategies in children. Cognit Therapy Res. 2009;33(1):1.

Hampel P, Petermann F. Age and gender effects on coping in children and adolescents. J Youth Adolesc. 2005;34(2):73-83.

Sandler IN, Tein JY, West SG. Coping, stress, and the psychological symptoms of children of divorce: A cross‐sectional and longitudinal study. Child Develop. 1994;65(6):1744-63.

Firth N, Greaves D, Frydenberg E. Coping styles and strategies: A comparison of adolescent students with and without learning disabilities. J Learning Disabil. 2010;43(1):77-85.

Goldberg RJ, Higgins EL, Raskind MH, Herman KL. Predictors of success in individuals with learning disabilities: A qualitative analysis of a 20‐year longitudinal study. Learning Disabil Res Pract. 2003;18(4):222-36.

Sideridis GD, Morgan PL, Botsas G, Padeliadu S, Fuchs D. Predicting LD on the basis of motivation, metacognition, and psychopathology: An ROC analysis. J Learning Disabil. 2006;39(3):215-29.

Dusek JB, Danko M. Adolescent coping styles and perceptions of parental child rearing. J Adolesc Res. 1994;9(4):412-26.

Kliewer W, Lewis H. Family influences on coping processes in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. J Pediatr Psychol. 1995;20(4):511-25.

Lohman BJ, Jarvis PA. Adolescent stressors, coping strategies, and psychological health studied in the family context. J Youth Adolesc. 2000;29(1):15-43.

McIntyre JG, Dusek JB. Perceived parental rearing practices and styles of coping. J Youth Adolesc. 1995;24(4):499-509.

McKernon WL, Holmbeck GN, Colder CR, Hommeyer JS, Shapera W, Westhoven V. Longitudinal study of observed and perceived family influences on problem-focused coping behaviors of preadolescents with spina bifida. J Pediatr Psychol. 2001;26(1):41-54.

Valentiner DP, Holahan CJ, Moos RH. Social support, appraisals of event controllability, and coping: An integrative model. J Personal Social Psychol. 1994;66(6):1094.