Clinical and epidemiological profile of cleft lip/ palate deformities in Tamil Nadu, India


  • S. Prabakaran Department of Paediatric Surgery, Government KAP Viswanatham Medical College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India



Cleft lip, Cleft palate, Craniofacial deformity, Congenital anomaly, Embryology, Multidisciplinary team


Background: Cleft lip and palate deformities are commonly detected at the time of birth in most of the developing countries like India. The surgical management of cleft lip/ palate deformities involve multi-disciplinary approach with corrective measures from dental surgeon, plastic surgeon, speech pathologist and audiologist. The role of pediatricians in clinical management of cleft lip is often missed. This study was done to evaluate the clinical profile of cleft lip and palate deformities.

Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among 1077 patients diagnosed with cleft lip or cleft palate deformity for a period of 5 years between 2014 and 2019. A structured patient information schedule was prepared and data regarding the age, gender, antenatal details and parental history were recorded. A detailed clinical examination was carried out to evaluate the presence of complete and incomplete deformity in the lip, alveolus, hard palate and soft palate.

Results: Complete cleft lip was present in 47.8% of the participants on the left side while on the right, complete cleft lip was present in 29.4% of the participants. Complete deformity of the alveolus on the left side was present in 45.4% of the participants while complete deformity on the right side of alveolus was present in 27.4% of the participants.

Conclusions: It is important the pediatricians sensitize the parents regarding the clinical and supportive management and also initiate the surgical correction of this deformity with help of a multidisciplinary team.


Lewis CW, Jacob LS, Lehmann CU. Primary care pediatr and the care of children with cleft lip and /or cleft palate. Pediatrics. 2017;139(5):e20170628.

Wanjeri JK, Wachira JM. Cleft lip and palate: a descriptive comparative, retrospective, and prospective study of patients with cleft deformities managed at 2 hospitals in Kenya. J Craniofacial Surg. 2009;20(5):1352-5.

Uppal SK, Shah S, Mittal RK, Garg R, Gupta A. Epidemiology and clinical profile of cleft lip and palate patients, in a tertiary institute in Punjab, India: A preliminary study. J Cleft Lip Palate Craniofacial Anomalies. 2016;1;3(1):32.

Tewfik TL, Kanaan A, Karsan A. Cleft lip and palate and mouth and pharynx deformities. Drugs Dis. 2015:15.

Diwana VK, Gupta G, Chauhan R, Mahajan K, Mahajan A, Gupta R, et al. Clinic and epidemiological profile of patients with cleft lip and palate anomaly: 10-year experience from a tertiary care center in the sub-himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in Northern India. J Natural Sce Biol Med. 2019;1;10(1):82.

Agrawal K. Cleft palate repair and variations. Indian J plast surg: official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India. 2009;42(Suppl):S102.

Wallace AF. A history of the repair of cleft lip and palate in Britain before World War II. Ann Plast Surg. 1987;19(3):266-75.

Nahai FR, Williams JK, Burstein FD, Martin J, Thomas J. The management of cleft lip and palate: pathways for treatment and longitudinal assessment. Semin Plast Surg. 2005;19(4):275-85.






Original Research Articles