DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20193600

Etiological study of jaundice in neonates

Jasraj Bohra, Chuba Kumzuk L. C. R.

Abstract


: Jaundice is the commonest abnormal finding with an incidence of about 60% in term babies and 80% in preterm babies. It is the commonest cause of admission to hospitals in the newborn period. In preterm babies, the percentage is exceedingly high due to their physiological handicaps and other hazards of prematurity like Asphyxia, septicemia, respiratory and circulatory Insufficiency. Non-physiological or pathological jaundice is also known to occur in (8-9)% of newborns. Its timely detection and optimal management are crucial to prevent brain damage and subsequent neuro-motor retardation. Aims of this study to find out the etiology of jaundice in neonates, admitted in neonates unit attached to SMS medical college Jaipur.

Method: This Observational study was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and Post Natal Ward attached to SMS medical college Jaipur, after approval from the hospital ethical committee, over a period of 12 months(October 2011 to September 2012. Study was carried on 500 neonates presenting clinically with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

Result: The onset of jaundice was seen maximum between live hour 24-72 hours (n=290, 58% cases), followed by live hour 72 hours-14 days (n=160, 32%). At more than 2 weeks there was only 3 case (0.6%). The etiological factors in the causation of jaundice in the decreasing order of frequency were exaggerated physiological jaundice accounts for (28%), ABO-incompatibility (24.4%), Rh-incompatibility (13.8%), Idiopathic (10.4%), cephalhematoma (10.2%), septicemia (6%), intrauterine infections (4%), BMJ (1.8%), Galactocemia (0.8%) and G6PD  Deficiency (0.6%) respectively.

Conclusion: Hyperbilirubinemia is more severe in newborns, therefore precautionary measure should be adopted by both parents, and clinicians to diagnose and treat the diseases properly.


Keywords


ABO incompatibility, Exaggerated physiological jaundice, Kernicterus, Neonatal jaundice, Prematurity, Rh-incompatibility

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