Profile and pattern of primary vesicoureteral reflux in children seeking care at a tertiary care teaching centre of Southern India


  • Shivana Gouda Department of Pediatrics, Gadag Institute of Medical Sciences, Gadag, Karnataka, India
  • Sonia Bhatt Department of Pediatrics, FH Medical College & Hospital, Etmadpur, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Dilip Kumar Mishra Consultant Urologist, Pushpanjali Hospital, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Madhu Sudan Agrawal Consultant Urologist, Global Rainbow Hospital, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India



Children, Kidney, Pattern, Profile, Retrospective studies, Vesico-ureteral reflux


Background: Previous studies have suggested that the clinical features of vesicoureteral reflux in infants differ from those of older children with regard to the male-to-female ratio and severity of renal parenchymal damage. Aim of the study is to know the profile and pattern of primary vesicoureteral reflux in subjects seeking care at a tertiary care teaching centre of southern India.

Methods: This was a hospital based study, conducted at the Department of Paediatrics, Kasturba Medical College located at Manipal during August 2004 - August 2012 over a period of 8 years. All the children in the age group of 1 month to 18 years with Vesicoureteral Reflux, who presented to the study centre during study period, were included in the study.

Results: Majority (78.5%) presented before 5 years, youngest age at presentation was 1 month and oldest at 14 year 8 months. Among 93 children studied, 65 were males and 28 were females with male to female ratio of 2.3. The commonest presenting complaint was fever (58%), followed by recurrent Urinary tract infection (UTI) (40.8%), dysuria 32 (34.4%) and reports of documented UTI was available in 23 (24.7%) cases. Four children had hypertension at presentation. Thirteen of them had associated posterior urethral valve. Neurogenic bladder was present in 3 children, 2 had associated Anorectal malformation and one had meningomyelocele.

Conclusions: Majority of vesicoureteral reflux cases presented before 5 years of age. There was a preponderance of males. Majority had grade IV and V reflux. The mean age at presentation of vesicoureteral reflux was 3.6 years. The commonest presenting complaint was fever, followed by recurrent UTI.


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