Etiological factors, clinical profile and outcome of meconium aspiration syndrome babies
Keywords:Downe’s score, Fetal distress, Meconium staining, Very low birth weight
Background: Meconium staining of amniotic fluid has for long been considered to be a bad predictor of the fetal outcome because of its direct correlation of fetal distress, and increased the likelihood of inhalation of meconium, resultant deleterious effects on the neonatal lung. To evaluate etiological factors and severity of MAS in the study group.
Methods: This study was done in the Neonatal intensive care unit of the Department of Paediatrics, Government Mohan Kumaramangalam Medical College Hospital Salem, Tamil Nadu, India in the year 2018. Complete maternal and neonatal details were recorded in to the proforma. Delivery details, resuscitation did were also recorded.
Results: In present study, fetal distress was found to be the most common (42.5%) factor associated with MAS followed by PIH (21.6%) and PROM (17%). 22 (9.1%) cases were associated with Postdatism, 18 (7.5%) cases were associated with placental insufficiency. 88 babies had fetal distress (36.6%) prior to delivery. 138 babies had no fetal distress (57.5%).
Conclusions: MAS is known to cause severe respiratory distress and Downe’s score ranging between 4-8, usually a few hours after the onset of respiratory distress. Nearly 73.3% of the cases with MAS had birth asphyxia, out of which 30% had severe birth asphyxia. This indicates that passage of meconium can occur in utero, often considered a feature of the stressed fetus. Undoubtedly aspiration had occurred before delivery in these babies.
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