Dysentery - a risk factor for zinc deficiency
Keywords:Zinc deficiency, Dysentery, Children
Background: The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency among under-five children with dysentery, and to compare the prevalence of zinc deficiency in children with dysentery with those who have acute non-bloody diarrhoea.
Methods: Serum zinc levels were determined using Atomic absorption spectrometry in under-five children with dysentery as well as those with non-bloody diarrhoea. A total of 250 children with diarrhoea were studied at the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria.
Results: Twenty seven (10.8%) of the 250 children had dysentery, while the remaining 223 children had non-bloody watery stools. Children with dysentery had a significantly lower mean serum (SD) zinc level of 65.1 (25.0) µg/dl, compared with a mean (SD) of 80.5 (36.3) µg/dl among those without visible blood in their stools (p = 0.034). Zinc deficiency (serum zinc <65 µg/dl) was also more prevalent among the dysentery group than those without visible blood in their stools (48.1% versus 28.3%; p = 0.034).
Conclusions: Presence of visible blood in stools is a risk factor for zinc deficiency among children with diarrhoea.
WHO. The Treatment of Diarrhoea: A manual for physicians and other senior health workers. 4th revision. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2005. WHO/CDD/SER/80.2.
WHO. The management of bloody diarrhoea in young children. World Health Organization, Geneva; 1994. WHO/CDD/94.49.
WHO. Zinc. In: Trace elements in human nutrition and health. [Online]. World Health Organization, Geneva; 1996. p 72-104. [Accessed 30 October, 2012]. Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/9241561734/en/index.html.
Bahl R, Bhandari N, Hambidge KM, et al. Plasma zinc as a predictor of diarrhoeal and respiratory morbidity in children in an urban slum setting. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 68(Suppl 2):S414-7.
WHO/UNICEF. Joint statement: Clinical management of acute diarrhoea. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2004. Accessed 30 October, 2012. Available from: URL: http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/ENAcute_Diarrhoea_reprint.pdf
International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). Assessing population zinc status with serum zinc concentration. IZiNCG Technical Brief. 2007;2:1-4.
Arora R, Kulshreshtha S, Mohan G. Estimation of serum zinc and copper in children with acute diarrhoea. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006;114:121-6.
Vallee BL, Falchuk KH. The biochemical basis of zinc physiology. Physiol Rev. 1993;73:79-118.
Huffman SL, Combest C. Role of breast-feeding in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1990;8:68-81.
Lamberti LM, Fischer-Walker CL. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhoea morbidity and mortality. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(Suppl 3):S15-27.
Meremikwu MM, Asindi AA, Antia-Obong OE. The influence of breast feeding on the occurrence of dysentery, persistent diarrhoea and malnutrition among Nigerian children with diarrhoea. West Afr J Med. 1997;16:20-3.
Hambidge KM, Krebs NF. Zinc deficiency: a special challenge. J Nutr. 2007;137:1101-5.
Singla PN, Chand P, Kumar A, Kachhawaha JS. Serum zinc and copper levels in children with protein energy malnutrition. Indian J Pediatr. 1996;63:199-203.
Ahmed TM, Mahmood MT. Serum zinc levels in children with malnutrition. J Paediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1998;27:257-9.
Atinmo T, Johnson A, Mbofung C, Tindimebwa G. Plasma zinc status of protein energy malnourished children. Acta Trop. 1982;39:265-74.
Ugwuja EI, Nwosu KO, Ugwu NC, Okonji M. Serum zinc and copper levels in malnourished pre-school age children in Jos, North Central Nigeria. Pak J Nutr. 2007;6:349-54.
Gibson RS. Zinc nutrition in developing countries. Nutr Res Rev. 1994;7:151-73.