Prevalence of hypertension in urban school going adolescents of Bangalore, India

Vedavathy S., . Sangamesh


Background: Systemic hypertension is an important condition in childhood, with estimated population prevalence of 1-2% in the developed countries. Nutritional surveys in USA shows a significant secular increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The prevalence may be high in south India, because of increased genetic inheritance and also due to altered dietary habits and life style. Therefore, the present study was undertaken. The aim and objectives of the study was to study the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in school going adolescents of urban Bangalore, India.

Methods: This is a school based cross sectional study carried out in three different schools of different socioeconomic status conducted over a period of 1 year. All boys and girls between the age group of 11 and 19 were included in the study.

Results: Total 748 students were included, family history of hypertension was present in 145 students (19.4%), family history of obesity seen in 76 students (10.2%), and 69.3% were non-vegetarians and 66.7% were taking junk food. Majority were in lower middle class (48.8%). Pre hypertension and stage I hypertension noted in 3.6% of students. It is significantly high in children with BMI>23. Family h/o hypertension and obesity were significant in children with pre hypertension and stage I hypertension (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Hypertension is a significant problem in urban adolescents of Bangalore city. Obesity, increased BMI and increased waist hip ratio are significant anthropometric risk factors. Family histories of hypertension and obesity have a strong correlation with occurrence of hypertension.


Essential hypertension, Risk factors, Adolescents

Full Text:



Munter P, He J, Cutler JA, Wildman RP, Whelton BK. Trends in blood pressure among children and adolescents. JAMA. 2004;291:2107-13.

Daniel B, Kleigman, Behrman, Nelson textbook of Paediatrics 18th edition: pg 1988-1995.

Taskforce in blood pressure control in children. Report of the second taskforce on blood pressure control in children. Pediatrics. 1987;79:1-25.

Munger RG, Prineas RJ, Gomez - Marin O. Persistent elevation of blood pressure among children with a family history of hypertension; the Minneapolis children's blood pressure study. J Hypertens. 1988;6:647-53.

Whincup PH, Cook DG, Shaper AG. Early influences in blood pressure: a study of children aged 5-7years. BMJ. 1989;299:587-91.

Guptha AK. Influence of family history of morbid cardiovascular events on blood pressure levels of school children. Indian Pediatrics. 1991;28:131-9.

Chadha SL, Tandon R, Shekhawat S, Gopinath N. An epidemiological study of blood pressure in school children (5¬14 years) in Delhi. Indian Heart J. 1999;51:178-82.

Bernstein D. Systemic hypertension. In Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB eds. Nelson Text Book of Pediatrics. 17th ed. Philadelphia; WB Saunders Co. 2004:1592-1598.

Sinaiko AR. Hypertension in children. NEJM. 1996;335:1968¬-73.

The fourth report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. National High Blood Pressure Education Program working group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114:555-76.

Burke V, Gracey MP, Beilin LJ, Milligan RA. Family history as a predictor of blood pressure in a longitudinal study of Australian Children. J Hypertens. 1998;16:269-76.

Genovesi S, Giussani M, Pieruzzi F, Vigorita F, Arcovio C, Cavuto S, Stella A. Results of blood pressure screening in a population of school aged children in the province of Milan. Role of overweight. J Hypertens. 2005;23:493-7.

Sorof JM, Lai D, Turner J, Poffenbarger T, Portman RJ. Overweight, ethnicity and the prevalence of hypertension in school aged children. Pediatrics. 2004;113:475-82.

Falkner B, Gidding SS, Ramirez - Garnica G, Wiltrout SA, West D, Rappaport EB. The relationship of body mass index and blood pressure in primary care Pediatric patients. J Pediatr. 2006;148:195-200.

Verma M, Chhatwal J, George SM. Obesity and hypertension in children. Indian Pediatrics. 1994;31:1065-9.

Sukumar IP, Alurkar VM. Systemic high arterial pressure in children. Indian Heart J. 1978;30:69.

Lane DA, Gill P. Ethnicity and tracking blood pressure in children. J Human Hypertension. 2004;18:223-8.

Choubanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: The JNC7 report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560-72.

Sainaiko AR, Gomez Marin O, Prineas RJ. Prevalence of "Significant" hypertension in junior high school aged children: The children and adolescent blood pressure program. J Pediatr. 1989;114:664-9.

Mohan B, Kumar N, Aslam N, Rangbulla A, Kumbakarani S, Sood NK. Prevalence of sustained hypertension and obesity in urban and rural school going children in Ludhiana. Indian Heart J. 2004;56:310-4.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. 2000 CDC growth charts: United States. Available at: Accessed March 18, 2004.

Savitha MR, Krishnamurthy B, Fatthepur SS, Yashwanth Kumar AM, Khan MA. Essential hypertension in early and mid-adolescence. Indian journal of pediatrics. Indian J Pediatr. 2007;74(11):1007-11.

Anand NK, Tandon L. Prevalence of hyper-tension in school going children. Indian Pediatr. 1996;33:376-80.

Loroia D, Sharma M, Diwedi V, Belapurkar KM, Mathur PS. Profile of blood pressure in normal school children. Indian Pediatrics. 1989;26:531-6.

Adrogué HE, Sinaiko AR. Prevalence of hypertension in junior high school-aged children. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14(5 Pt 1):412-4.

Porto PI, García SI, Dieuzeide G, González C, Landa MS, Pirola CJ. Clinical features of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: minor role of the Trp64Arg beta3-adrenergic receptor gene variant. Pediatr Res. 2004;55(5):836-41.

Guízar J, Ahuatzin R, Amador N, Sánchez G, Romer G. Heart Autonomic Function in Overweight Adolescents. Indian Pediatrics. 2005;42:464-9.

Moussa MA, Skaik MB, Selwanes SB, Yaghy OY, Bin-Othman SA. Contribution of body fat and fat pattern to blood pressure level in school children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48:587-90.

Barker DJP, ed. Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: BMJ Books, 1992.

Zhao M, Ou X, Shu, Jin F. Birth weight, childgood growth and hypertension in adulthood, Shangai, China. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2002;31:1043-51.

Burke V, Gracey MP, Beilin LJ, Milligan RA, Family history as a predictor of blood pressure in a longitudinal study of Australian children. J Hypertens. 1998;16(3):269-76.

Kuschnir MCC, Mendonça GAS. Risk factors associated with arterial hypertension in adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2007;83(4):335-42.

Kuppuswamy B. Manual of socioeconomic status (Urban), Manasayan, Delhi, 1981.

Mishra D, Singh HP. Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status, scale- A revision. Indian J Pediatr. 2003;70(3):273-4.

Jaber L, Eisenstein B, Shohat M. Blood pressure measurements in Israeli Arab children and adolescents Isr Med Assoc J. 2000;2(2):118-21.

Sorof J, Daniels S. Obesity hypertension in children: a problem of epidemic proportions. Hypertension. 2002;40:441-7.

Macedo ME, Lima MJ, Silva AO, Alcantara P, Ramalhinho V, Calmona J. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and controlof hypertension in Portugal, The PAP study. Rev Port Cardiol. 2007;26(1):21-39.