Study on spectrum of heart diseases in children aged 1 month to 12 years in a rural medical college in Southern India

Selvakumar R., Vasanthamalar C., Sreeman N.


Background: To study the pattern of heart diseases in children aged 1 month to 12 years of age and to assess the pattern, age and gender specific distribution of congenital heart diseases and acquired heart diseases in various age groups like infants, toddler, preschool and school children to prevent morbidity and mortality. To study the various complications associated with various types of heart diseases.

Methods: This is a descriptive study of one-year duration in which children with suspicion of heart disease were subjected to ECG, Chest X ray and Echocardiogram. Patients with confirmed heart disease were included and the infants less than 1 month, CCF due to anaemia or without any structural abnormality were excluded.

Results: The prevalence of heart disease was 0.9% in author study. VSD is the commonest acyanotic lesion in all age group observed and TOF is the commonest cyanotic lesion. Most of the cyanotic lesions were observed in less than one year. Most of the acyanotic lesions fall within 5 to 12 years. RHD and rheumatic carditis forms the major acquired lesion followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. VSD, ASD, PDA, TOF, Pulmonary stenosis, Rheumatic carditis and MR were predominant in females whereas Aortic stenosis (Bicuspid aortic valve), AV canal defect, TGA, TAPVC were predominant in males. Among the nutritional status 64.2% of patients from acyanotic group and 100% patients from cyanotic group were malnourished. 35% of acyanotic and 100% of cyanotic group were stunted.

Conclusions: Acyanotic lesion is the commonest, among which VSD is most common. TOF is the common cyanotic CHD. More than half of the patients were asymptomatic in acyanotic group and presented in the 5- 12 years age group and diagnosed on the basis of clinical suspicion on routine health visits or for some other reason.


Echocardiogram, Heart diseases, Rheumatic heart diseases, Tetrology of fallot, Ventricular septal defect

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