Clinical and aetiological profile of Pneumonia in age group between 1 month to 1 year: a hospital based prospective study
Keywords:Bacterial, Clinical, Pneumonia, Radiological, Risk factors, Viral
Background: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age across the world. The present study was designed to clinically evaluate the children of age 1 month to 1 year with pneumonia, correlate it with bacteriological, radiological findings and to study the risk factors.
Methods: Clinical, bacteriological, radiological features and risk factors of community acquired pneumonia in children of age group 1 month to 1 year were noted and analysed.
Results: As per WHO ARI control programme, 72% had pneumonia, 25.3 % had severe pneumonia and 2.6% had very severe pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia was detected radiologically in 4.6% and viral pneumonia in 88.6% of cases. Chest X-ray was normal in 6.6% of cases. Tachypnoea, chest retractions, crepitations alone and crepitations with rhonchi correlated well with positive radiological findings. Inappropriate immunization for age, lack of breast feeding, preterm birth, smoking in family were significant risk factors for severe Pneumonia. 39.3% had leucocytosis and 24% had positive CRP. Culture was positive in 23 cases (15.3% culture positivity).
Conclusions: Radiologically confirmed Pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics because, in clinical practice, it is virtually impossible to distinguish exclusively between viral pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia. As the viruses are most common causative agents of Pneumonia in 1 month to 1 year, PCR kits should be used to identify viral etiological agents. Early and exclusive breast feeding should be promoted to decrease the risk of pneumonia.
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